Rotavirus and Hepatitis Viruses Flashcards Preview

GI 3 > Rotavirus and Hepatitis Viruses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rotavirus and Hepatitis Viruses Deck (61):
1

nucleic acid of rotavirus

dsRNA, encapsulated

2

nucleic acid of norovirus

naked, positive sense ssRNA

3

nucleic acid of adenovirus

naked, DNA

4

VP1 protein, rotavirus

- transcriptase

5

VP3, rotavirus

- mRNA capping

6

VP4, rotavirus

- hemagglutinin, involved in attachment

7

VP7, rotavirus

- induces formation of neutralizing antibodies, leads to immunity

8

rotavirus capsid

- protects virus from stomach acid
- partial acid digestion cleaves VP4
- produces infectious sub-viral particle (ISVP)

9

ISVP, rotavirus

- penetrates cell
- dsRNA replicated
- VPs made
- lyse cell

10

NSP4, rotavirus

- promotes Ca influx into enterocytes
- secretion of water and loss of ions leads to watery diarrhea

11

transmission of rotavirus

- fecal oral
- survives well on fomites and hands

12

clinical disease of rotavirus

- major cause of gastroenteritis in infants
- vomiting, diarrhea, fever, dehydration
- no RBCs or WBCs

13

transmission of norovirus

- fecal oral
- cruise ships and infected food handlers

14

clinical disease of norovirus

- 24-48 hour incubation
- acute onset of diarrhea and N/V
- virus compromises intestinal brush border function and prevents absorption of water and nutrients
- NO blood

15

nucleic acid of YF

- positive sense, ssRNA, enveloped

16

vector for YF

- Aedes aegypti mosquito

17

pathogenesis of YF

- kupffer cells infected in 24 hours
- viremic phase: malaise, fever, chills, headache
- conjunctival infection and facial flushing
- jaundice, dark urine, pale stools, generalized itching

18

black vomiting with jaundince

YF

19

YF vaccine

- live attenuated
- safe and effective in HIV patients with CD4 cells > 200/ ul
- DO NOT give to pregnant women

20

nucleic acid of hep A

- heparna virus (hep A RNA)
- picronavirus- RNA, naked

21

NA of hep B

- hepadna virus (hepa DNA)
- DNA, enveloped

22

NA of hep C

- flavivirus
- RNA, enveloped

23

NA of hep D

- delta virus
- circular RNA, enveloped

24

NA of hep E

- hepevirus (hep E virus)
- RNA, naked

25

transmission of hep A and E

- fecal oral
- vowels in the bowels

26

transmission of hep B,C, and D

- contaminated blood

27

characteristics of hep A

- naked, icosahedral capsid
- positive sense, ssRNA
- transmitted via fecal oral

28

pathogenesis of hep A

- virus ingested, enters bloodstream via GI tract
- replicates in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells
- released into bile and then stool
- shed about 10 days before symptoms

29

symptoms of hep A

- prodrome: fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, ab pain
- icteric phase: jaundice, dark urine appears first then pale stool, ab pain, pruritus, arthralgias, skin rash

30

hep A prevention

- avoid uncooked shellfish
- vaccine: killed vaccine for infants at 2 and adults along with the HBV vaccine

31

hep B characteristics

- small, enveloped DNA virus
- encodes a reverse transcriptase and replicates through an RNA intermediate

32

immunopathogenesis of acute HBV infection

- T cell response causes:
- degeneration of liver parenchyma
- cellular swelling and necrosis
- inflammatory cell infiltrate
- jaundice

33

immunopathogeneis of chronic HBV infection

- insufficient T-cell response causes mild symptoms
- HBV DNA integrates into hepatocyte DNA

34

neutralizing antibody (nAb)

- can block virus binding and infection
- made against HBsAg (vaccination)
- immune complexes can form between HBsAg and nAb leading to type III hypersensitivity reactions and vasculitis, arthralgia, rash, glomerulonephritis

35

transmission of HBV

- contaminated blood
- sexual contact
- birth
- needlestick injuries

36

symptoms of acute HBV infection

- preicteric: fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, ab discomfort, chills
- icteric: liver damage (jaundice, dark urine, pale stools), fulminant hepatitis

37

symptoms of chronic HBV infection

- scarring, cirrhosis, liver failure or PHC

38

HBsAg

- indicates infection
- if present, actively replicating virus
- if present for more than 6 months, then chronic infection

39

HBsAb

- confers immunity
- if present, indicates resolution or immunization

40

HBeAg

- correlates with active viral replication
- present during acute disease and active chronic disease
- indicates extremely infective

41

HBeAb

- present in chronic disease
- indicator of actively making virus

42

HBcAb

- first Ab to appear
- presence indicates recent infection
- both IgM and IgG Ab present

43

treatment of hep B

- hep B immune globulin for recent exposure (within 1 week of exposure)
- HIV RT inhibitors or nucleoside analogs for 1 year

44

HBV vaccine

- contains HBsAg S gene
- series of 3 injections

45

characteristics of hep C

- positive sense, RNA, enveloped
- chronic, cirrhosis, cancer
- flaviviridae family

46

transmission of hep C

- blood and body secretions
- IV drug abusers prominent

47

replication of hep C

- coats itself with LDL or VLDL and uses these for uptake into hepatocytes
- virion buds into and remains in ER

48

HCV pathogenesis

- HCV proteins inhibit apoptosis and INF-a by binding to TNF-R and protein kinase R
- CMI responsible for producing tissue damage

49

HCV symptoms

- 3 types of disease: acute, severe rapid progression and chronic persistent infection

50

diagnosis of HCV

- ELISA for anti-HCV antibody

51

treatment for HCV

- recombinant INF-a +- ribavarin

52

characteristics of hep D

- HBsAg is essential for packaging the virus
- coinfection occurs with hep B
- superinfection can occur
- very small, ssRNA

53

coinfection

- Hep B and D transmitted together
- takes 2-3 months to make surface antigen

54

superinfection

- have hep B and then get hep D
- acute liver failure in days to weeks

55

replication of hep D

- HBsAg binds to hepatocytes and the virus enters
- original genome forms a ribozyme
- promotes association of genome with HBsAg to form virion

56

symptoms of hep D

- fulminant hepatitis common: severe, alters brain function, extensive jaundice, massive hepatic necrosis

57

prevention of hep D

- immunization with HBV vaccine protects against HDV

58

characteristics of hep E

- norovirus
- fecal oral transmission
- mostly in developing countries
- serious in pregnant women - 20% mortality

59

major glycoprotein component of HBV virion

- S

60

essential glycoprotein component of HBV virion assembly

- L

61

replication of hep B

- HBV attaches to hepatocytes mediated by HBsAg
- DNA genome delivered to nucleus
- copies genome in the cytoplasm