RRD #1 Flashcards Preview

Patho > RRD #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in RRD #1 Deck (64)
Loading flashcards...
1

Physiology

study of functions & processes that occur in body, mostly NORMAL processes

2

Pathophysiology

the study of the underlying changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury

3

stressors

challenges in the body's balance

4

compensation

the return of homeostasis after being challenged by stressors (adaptations, healing)

5

glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogen

6

decompensation

the failure to compensate

7

disease

a harmful condition of the body

8

disorder

a disturbance in the healthiness of the body

9

syndrome

a collection of symptoms

10

etiology

the cause of a disease

11

idiopathic

unidentifiable cause

12

iatrogenic

occurs as result of medical treatment

13

nosocomial

result as consequence of being in hospital environment

14

signs

manifestations that can be objectively identified

15

symptoms

subjectively manifestation that can only be reported by the person experiencing them

16

"shock"

low BP plus S&S of not getting enough blood to different parts of the body

17

prognosis

the predicted outcome of a dz based on certain factors

18

sequela

aftermath of a disease

19

gene

a segment of a DNA molecule that is composed of an ordered sequence of nucleotide bases

20

main function of genes

coding for synthesis of proteins

21

allele

partner genes that have the same location on each respective chromosome,code for the same trait

22

multifactorial genetic disorders

combination of environmental triggers and variations / mutations of genes, plus sometimes inherited tendencies

23

teratogenic/congenital defects

abnormalities that are either detectable at birth and/or can be attributed to fetal development "glitches"

24

ischemia

cells not getting enough oxygen due to circulatory malfunction

25

ischemic pain

tissue not getting enough oxygen

26

autosomal dominant disorder

occurs when a person inherits a mutated, diseased gene that is dominant

27

recombinant DNA

a form of genetic engineering

28

hypoxia

decrease in amount of oxygen to cell or ability to use oxygen appropriately

29

sequelae of hypoxia

-deficiency of ATP for cellular functions
-altered acid/base balance (acidosis)

30

cellular metabollism for hypoxia

glycolysis

31

pH range of blood

7.35 - 7.45

32

glycogenesis

formation of glycogen from glucose/sugar

33

glycogenolysis

conversion of glycogen to glucose (back up plan #1)

34

gluconeogenesis

use of any substance besides carbohydrates for cellular energy like breaking down of fats and proteins (back up plan #2)

35

breakdown product of fats and proteins

ketones

36

"good" characteristic of ketones

can offer the body some energy - usually enough to be a "stop gap" till glucose is available

37

"bad" characteristic of ketones

-are acids (cause acidosis over time)
-can't be use by the brain

38

McArdle's disease

an autosomal recessive disease in which normal ability to breakdown glycogen (glycogenolysis) is diminished.

39

hyperketonemia

high levels of ketones in the blood

40

S&S of anemia

low ATP, low oxygenation, weakness, fatigue, and SOB

41

paresthesia

numbness & tingling or other unusual sensations, usually in legs

42

2 basic fluid compartments

extracellular and intracellular

43

hyperkalemia

higher than normal numbers of K in the blood

44

hypokalemia

lower than normal numbers of K in the blood

45

hypernatremia

higher than normal numbers of Na in the blood

46

hyponatremia

lower than normal numbers of Na in the blood

47

hypercalcemia

higher than normal Ca in the blood

48

hypocalcemia

lower than normal Ca in the blood

49

RMP of resting cell

-90mV

50

RMP of cell to "go to work"

+30mV

51

hyperpolarized state

situations in which membranes of cells have been reset to a LESS positive number than normal, lengthening the polar gap status & making them less sensitive

52

hyperpolarized mechanisms

hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypercalcemia

53

hypopolarized state

situations in which membranes of cells have been reset to a MORE positive number, shortening the polar gap status & making them more sensitive

54

hypopolarized mechanisms

hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia

55

S&S of hypopolarization

-muscles that are too sensitive (hyperactive "irritable")
-muscle tics or spasms

56

S&S of hyperpolarization

-less sensitive muscles (hypoactive)
-fatigue, lethargy, mental slowness

57

metabolic acidosis

-excess accumulation of H+ in the body
-not enough excretion of H+ in the urine
-not enough HCO3 being made
-too much HCO3 being excreted in the urine
(low pH or low HCO3)

58

metabolic acidosis compensation

-via the lungs
-increase the amount of CO2 is exhaled
-increase the rate and depth of respirations

59

respiratory acidosis

low pH caused by a ventilation problem such as diminished effectiveness of breathing or decreased respiratory rate

60

respiratory acidosis compensation

-via the kidneys
-HCO3 production by the kidneys will be increased

61

metabolic alkalosis

-excess accumulation of HCO3 in the body
-not enough excretion of HCO3 in the urine
-too much H+ excreted in the urine
-not enough acid being made

62

metabolic alkalosis compensation

-via the lungs
-decreased rate & depth of respirations

63

Respiratory alkalosis

state of high pH caused by hyperventilation

64

respiratory alkalosis compensation

-via the kidneys
-decreasing the amount of HCO3 made or increasing its excretion