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Flashcards in RRD #2 Deck (46)
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1

osmosis

the movement of water between compartments

2

osmolality

is a measurement of how concentrated a compartment is

3

serum osmolality

a clinical way to measure concentration of the plasma compartment via the blood

4

tonicity/salinity

the "saltiness" of a fluid, how much is made of salt

5

normal tonicity of blood

0.9% NaCl (isotonic)

6

osmotic pressure

the pressure exerted by all the solutes in a compartment

7

oncotic pressure

pressure exerted specifically by protein molecules

8

rule of osmosis

water will always move from more dilute compartment to a more concentrated compartment (CONCENTRATION CALLS, OSMOLALITY ORDERS)

9

tissue to blood fluid shift

water is pathologically LOST by the body

10

blood to tissue fluid shift

water is pathologically GAINED by the body or protein is lost (fluid volume overload or excess)

11

decreased blood osmolality

pathologic water GAIN or protein LOSS

12

water overload examples

-under skin (edema)
-lung tissue (manifest cough,SOB, or crackle)
-acute CNS (swelling of brain cells)

13

fluid overload compensation

natriuretic peptide system (NPS)

14

apoptosis

normal cell death

15

necrosis

abnormal cell death

16

first step to healing of all cell/tissues

inflammation

17

creatine kinase

enzyme found in most muscle cells that catalyze transference of phosphate groups back & forth between ADP & ATP

18

myoglobin

protein found in most muscle cells

19

troponin

type of protein molecule only found in heart muscle

20

acute ischema

hypoxia to tissues from sudden lack of blood supply

21

chronic ischemia

better tolerated of lack of blood supply because tissues can adapt to some degree over time

22

infarction is to _____as ischemia is to ______

necrosis, hypoxia

23

carbon monoxide poisoning action

CO has high affinity to hemoglobin -> binds to Hgb, forming HgCO -> tissues become hypoxic -> cell damage

24

carbon monixide S&S

headache, giddiness, confusion, seizure, coma

25

carbon monoxide treatment

100% O2 oxygen mask and/or hyperbaric chamber

26

gout

systemic disease caused by buildup of uric acids in the blood (hyperuricemia)

27

counteracting free radicals

-certain vitamins like C & E
-superoxide dismutase

28

cell proliferation

the multiplication or reproduction of cells resulting in the rapid expansion of cell population

29

tumor/neoplasm

an abnormal mass of tissue

30

clonal proliferation

a rapid increase in growth & development by stimulating cells growth factor signals (rapid duplication but little differentiation)

31

anaplasia

loss of differentiation

32

tumor markers

substances in the body produced by cancer cells or released by cancer damaged tissue that can be found in blood, spinal fluid or urine

33

genetic markers

genetic abnormalities that are found in some people that predict odds of having certain types of cancers

34

TNM staging= T

size of tumor

35

TNM staging= N

extent of lymph nodes involvement

36

TNM staging = M

metastasis (mets)

37

benign tumor classification and specific name

-first part is usually tissue
-end in "oma" (tumor)

38

malignancies classification and specific name

-named according to cell type and in addition to "oma" has root words "carcin", "sarco", "blasto"

39

malignancies involving connective tissue name

-usually have "sarcoma" plus origin of name

40

malignancies involving muscle tissue name

-usually have specific muscle type plus "sarcoma" plus "myo"

41

malignancies involving neural tissue

usually have specific nerve type plus "blasto"

42

atrophy

decrease or shrinkage of cellular size

43

hypertrophy

increase in size of cells & consequently size of organ

44

hyperplasia

increase in number of cells resulting from increased rate of cell division

45

metaplasia

reversible replacement of one mature cell by another type of less differentiated mature cell

46

dysplasia

abnormal changes in size, shape, & organization of mature cells due to persistent, severe cell injury or irritation