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Flashcards in RRD #5 Deck (33)
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1

Leukemia

type of cancer of the hematopoietic system in which there is
uncontrolled proliferation of leukocytes, causing over-crowding of bone
marrow & decreased production of normal hematopoietic cells

2

S&S of leukemia

leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anemia, ease of infection bc the WBC immunocyte function is impaired

3

multiple myeloma

a cancer of plasma cells

4

pathogenesis of multiple myeloma

normally, plasma cells selectively produce immunoglobulins on as-needed basis with multiple myeloma, some of the plasma cells become malignant and begin overproducing causing multiple malignant tumors that increase osteoclastic
activity

5

lymphadenopathy

enlarged lymph nodes due to local or systemic infections

6

lymphoma

cancer in which certain lymphocytes begin to wildly proliferate, often
clumping together in tumors of the lymph nodes

7

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

a type of cancer that usually begins as
enlarged, painless mass in lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) of neck; good
cure rates

8

petechiae

pinpoint red spots that don’t blanche

9

purpura

larger areas that look purplish

10

ecchymosis

general term for collection of blood under
skin greater than~1cm

11

frank bleeding

"obvious bleeding"
-under the skin
-GI bleeding
-mucous membranes (nose bleeds)

12

occult bleeding

"hidden bleeding"
-GI tract if the bleeding is slow &
not in areas where blood can be digested, stools may appear normal but
actually have blood in them

13

thrombocytopenia

deficient platelet numbers

14

S&S of thrombocytopenia

platelet count on CBC is less than 100,000 (normal 250,000) and bleeding

15

hemophilia

a medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even a slight injury

16

von Willebrand disease

a bleeding disorder caused by low levels of clotting protein in the blood

17

thrombocytosis

platelet greater than 400,000

18

thromboembolic disorders

any combination of thrombocytosis and clotting factor
overactivity

19

thrombus

an arterial or venous clot attached to vessel wall

20

embolus

— an arterial or venous thrombus that has broken loose and travels
in the circulatory system

21

Splenomegaly

enlargement of spleen

22

Hypersplenism

a condition that results from splenomegaly: due to the enlarged spleen,
RBCs, WBCs, and thrombocytes (platelets) become trapped there—ie,
sequestered

23

anemias

Disorders due to pathologically decreased number of RBCs

24

polycythemias

Disorders due to pathologically
increased number of RBCs

25

polycythemia vera

a rare condition in which there is slow development of hyper-proliferation of bone marrow stem cells

26

microcytic anemia

an anemia in which the size is smaller than normal so CBC would show RBCs of <4 million and MCV of <80

27

microcytic anemia patho

something causes the body to slowly, chronically, lose RBCs and thus it begins to “run low” on material to make enough full-sized replacement RBCs

28

normocytic anemia

an anemia in which the size of the RBC is normal, so CBC would show RBCs of <4 million and MCV that is
normal

29

S&S of microcytic anemia

RBC <4million, fatigue, weakness, sometimes SOB & dull
mentation.

30

S&S of normocytic anemia

RBC <4million, fatigue, weakness, sometimes SOB & dull
mentation

31

macrocytic anemia

an anemia in which the size (MCV) is larger than normal so CBC would show RBCs of <4 million and MCV
of > 95

32

most common example of a macrocytic anemia

pernicious anemia.

33

S&S of macrocytic anemia

RBC <4million, fatigue, weakness, sometimes SOB & dull
mentation(1) MCV>95.
(2) glossitis (“inflammation of tongue”) swollen, beefy red, smooth, painful tongue
(3) neuropathies, most often of the legs, such as paresthesia