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Flashcards in RRD #3 Deck (46)
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1

Body defenses

An interaction and coordination of responses to stressors

2

Two major categories of body defenses

-innate resistance
-acquired immunity

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Innate “natural” Resistance

The defense mechanism we are born with

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First line of resistance

Body’s physical barriers which are immediate and non-specific

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Second line of resistance

Inflammation which is immediate and non-specific and considered a function of innate immunity

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Acquired “adaptive” immunity

Immunity that develops during a person’s lifetime

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Third line of defense

Is specific resistance which is considered a function of acquired immunity Delayed

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Desquamation of skin

Shedding of skin cells

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Sjögren’s syndrome

Autoimmune disease that dries up all lubricating fluids in the body

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Respiratory system defenses

-Viscosity of mucus in nose
-cilia in bronchi
-cough reflex

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Gastrointestinal system defenses

-saliva
-stomach-HCl
-gag reflex/vomiting
-defecation

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Stressors that can breach respiratory defenses

Cigarette smoking
Cough reflex suppression

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Stressors that can breach GI defenses

Sjögren’s syndrome
Anything that changes the bowel flora

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Genitourinary system defenses

-flow of urine
-vaginal secretions slightly acidic

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Stressors that can breach GU defenses

Decreased urine flow
Anything that changes vaginal acidity

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Lymphocytes

B and T-cells

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T-lymphocytes

Defend the body by direct attack against invading microbes

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B-lymphocytes

Defend by differentiating into plasma membrane, plasma cells then create antibodies to the microbe that has attacked the body, then a particular set of antibodies will always remember that specific microbe

19

Acquired immunity categories

-active vs passive
-natural vs artificial

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Active acquired immunity

Immunity that is developed on their own immunocyte system and creates the antibodies that established immunity that can be either natural or artificially

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Natural active acquired immunity

This is when a person’s plasma cells build up antibodies in response to microbially-induced illness

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Artificially active acquired immunity

When a person’s plasma cells build up antibodies in response to receiving inoculations of a much-weakened or inactive microbe

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Passive acquired immunity

Immunity that has been given by someone else’s antibodies; do not develop antibodies on their own

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Natural passive acquired immunity

Occurs when there is a transfer of antibodies (ex. Mom to baby via placenta or breast milk)

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Artificial passive acquired immunity

Occurs when antibodies are injected during treatment, usually given as intramuscular injection of antibodies to a disease that you have a high risk of contracting (ex. Tetanus)

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Advantages of passive immunity

-be a powerful immediate way to fight disease, as the disease-specific antibodies will immediately begin attacking the microbes

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Disadvantages of passive immunity

Only lasts as long as the antibody lasts - after about 2 weeks, the antibody degrades

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Normal immunity

process is usually acute and short lived

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irritation/ injury of tissue stimulates "leakiness" in 3 ways

-loss of cell membrane integrity & leakage
-they cause capillaries in the area to swell up but relax as well (vasodilation)
-mast cell degranulation

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mast cells

WBCs that are found in tissue instead of blood

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macrophages

start life as circulating monocytes & end up in the tissue as their home; phagocytize microbes & other duties

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neutrophils

circulating phagocytes- kill microorganisms in blood and tissue

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lymphocytes

T-lymphocytes & B-lymphocytes: AKA immunocytes

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exudate

a thick fluid of a combination of plasma, fibrin, phagocytes, bacteria, and dead tissue cells

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serious exudate

clear gold color exudate

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serosanguinous

exudate with blood

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purulent exudate

exudate especially thick and whitish or yellow (pus)

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degranulation

breaking apart of mast cells with spillage of granules of biochemical mediators into tissue

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granulating

tissue-pink, healthy, healing tissue

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granuloma

a hunk of tissue that has been chronically inflamed & is now essentially just scar tissue

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local external inflammatory response

laceration or abrasion on skin

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local internal inflammatory response

appendicitis, pleuritis, thyroiditis

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appendicitis

irritation and inflammation of appendix by a piece of food or microbe

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pleuritis

inflammation of pleura when irritated- ex) irritated by lung cancer cell

45

thyroiditis

thyroid is inflamed because of autoimmune attack

46

sepsis

a system wide inflammation