RT 103 Ch. 3, CA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RT 103 Ch. 3, CA Deck (215):
1

Name the 3 groups that the nine regions of the body are divided into, in the REGION method.

1. Superior
2. Middle
3. Inferior

2

What 3 regions of the body are part of the superior group?

1. Right hypochondrium
2. Epigastrium
3. Left hypochondrium

3

What 3 regions of the body are part of the Middle group?

Right lateral
Umbilical
Left lateral

4

If a patient is diagnosed as having epigastric pain what method of division would this be an example of?

Region method ( Nine region method)

5

If a patient is diagnosed as having RLQ pain, what method of division would this be an example of?

Quadrant method

6

Surface Landmarks- C1

Mastoid tip

7

Surface Landmarks- Cervical Area, C2, C3

Gonion, (Angle of mandible)

8

Surface Landmarks- Cervical Area, C3, C4

Hyoid Bone

9

Surface Landmarks- Cervical Area, C5

Thyroid cartilage

10

Surface Landmarks- Cervical Area- C7, T1

Vertebra prominens

11

Surface Landmarks- Thoracic area- T1

Approx. 2" (5cm) above level of the jugular notch

12

Surface Landmarks- Thoracic area- T2, T3

Level of Jugular notch

13

What 3 regions of the body are part of the Inferior group?

Right inguinal
hypogastrium
left inguinal

14

Surface landmarks - Thoracic Area - T4, T5

Level of sternal angle

15

Surface landmarks - Thoracic Area - T7

Level of inferior angles of scapulae

16

Surface landmarks - Thoracic Area - T9, T10

Level of xiphoid process

17

Surface landmarks - Lumbar Area - L2, L3

Inferior costal margin

18

Surface landmarks - Lumbar Area - L4, L5

Level of superiormost aspect of iliac crests

19

Surface landmarks - Sacrum and Pelvic Area - S1, S2

Level of anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

20

Surface landmarks - Sacrum and Pelvic Area - Coccyx

Level of pubic symphysis and greater trochanters.

21

Body Habitus

Common variations in the shape of the human body.

22

Why is the specific type of body habitus important in radiography?

Because it determines the size, shape, and position of the organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

23

What does the body habitus directly affect the locations of which organs?

Heart
Lungs
Diaphragm
Stomach
Colon
Gallbladder

24

What are the four body types of body habitus?

Sthenic (50% of population)
Asthenic (10% of population)
Hyposthenic (35% of population)
Hypersthenic (5% of population)

25

What percentage of the population has either Sthenic or Hyposthenic body habitus?

85%

26

What is the dominant type of body habitus?

Sthenic

27

Patients with Sthenic or Hyposthenic body habitus are referred to as what?

Ordinary or average

28

Sthenic (50% of population) organ placement

Heart: Moderately transverse
Lungs: Moderate length
Diaphragm: Moderately High
Stomach: High, upper left
Colon: Spread evenly, slight dip in transverse colon
Gallbladder: Centered on right upper abdomen

29

Sthenic (50% of population) characteristics

Build: Moderately heavy
Abdomen: Moderately long
Thorax: Moderately short, broad, and deep
Pelvis; Relatively small

30

Hyposthenic (35% of population)

Organs and characteristics for this habitus are intermediate between Sthenic and Asthenic body habitus types: this habitus is the most difficult to classify.

31

Asthenic (10% of population) organ placement

Heart: Nearly vertical and at midline
Lungs: Long, apices above clavicles, may be broader above base
Diaphragm: Low
Stomach: Low and medial, in the pelvis when standing
Colon: low, spreads in itself
Gallbladder: lower and nearer to the midline

32

Hypersthenic (5% of population) characteristics

Build: Massiver; described as having a barrell chest
Abdomen: Long
Thorax: Short, broad, deep
Pelvis; Narrow

33

Asthenic (10% of population) characteristics

Build: Frail
Abdomen: Short
Thorax: long, shallow
Pelvis; Wide

34

Hypersthenic (5% of population) organ placement

Heart: axis nearly transverse
Lungs: short, apices at or near clavicles
Diaphragm: High
Stomach: High and transverse, and i the middle
Colon: Around periphery of abdomen
Gallbladder: High, outside, lies more parallel.

35

How many bones does the adult human skeleton have?

206

36

What unites bones to the skeleton?

Ligaments

37

What do bones provide?

1. Attachment for muscles
2. Mechanical basis for movement
3. Protection of internal organs.
4. a frame to support the body
5. Storage for calcium, phosphorus and other salts
6. Production of red and white blood cells

38

What are the 2 main groups bones are divided in?

Axial skeleton and Appendicular skeleton

39

Axial Skeleton group of bone

supports and protects the head and trunk with 80 bones.

40

Appendicular skeleton group of bone

allows the body to move in various positions and from place to place with 126 bones

41

Axial skeleton - Skull 28 bones

Cranial - 8
Facial - 14

42

Axial skeleton - Neck 1 bone

Hydroid

43

Axial skeleton - Thorax 25 bones

Sternum - 1
Ribs - 24

44

Axial skeleton - Vertebral Column 26 bones

Cervical -7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
sacrum - 1
Coccyx - 1

45

Appendicular skeleton - Shoulder Girdle 4 bones

Clavicles -2
Scapulae -2

46

Appendicular skeleton - upper limbs 60 bones

Humeri - 2
Ulnae - 2
Radii -2
Carpals - 16
metacarpals - 10
Phalanges -28

47

Appendicular skeleton - lower limbs 60 bones

Femora - 2
Tibias - 2
Fibuae -2
Patellae - 2
Tarsals -14
Metatarsals - 10
Phalanges -28

48

Appendicular skeleton - pelvic girdle 2 bones

Hip bones - 2

49

Bone Features
A spiculated network of interconnecting spaces; filled with red and yellow marrow

Trabeculae

(Don't forget that this answer is part of the spongy bone feature, there is also a compact bone outer layer which is also a feature.)

50

Bones that have a central cavity;which contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow. Name this type of bone?

Long Bones

51

The name of the cavity containing yellow marrow in long bones?

Medullary

52

This tough fibrous connective tissue covers all bony surfaces except the articular surfaces, which are covered by the articular cartilage.

Periosteum

53

The tissue lining the medullary cavity of bones is called?

Endosteum

54

The term given to the development and formation of bones?

Ossification

55

When do bones begin to develop?

In the 2nd month of embryonic life

56

Ossification
Bones that develop from fibrous membranes in the embryo produce the flat bones? Name the stage in ossification and bones.

Intermembranous; Bones of the skull, clavicles, mandible, and sternum

57

Ossification
Bones that develop from HYALINE CARTILAGE in the bone and produce the short, irregular and long bones. Name the Ossification.

Endochondral

58

Ossification
Begins BEFORE BIRTH and forms the entire bulk of the short and irregular bones, and forms the long central shaft in long bones.

Primary

59

What the long shaft of long bones is called

Diaphysis

60

Ossification
Occurs after birth when a separate bone begins to develop at both ends of each long bone.

Secondary

61

Name the end of each end of the long bone

Epiphysis

62

Name the type of bones found only in the limbs, and examples of these bones?

Long bones ; Femur, humerus, phalanges of fingers, and toes

63

Name the type of bone consisting of cancellous bone containing red marrow and have a thin outer layer of compact bone. Give examples.

short bones; carpal bones of the wrist and tarsal bones of the ankles

64

Name the type of bones which are named for their peculiar shape? Give examples.

Irregular bones; vertebrae and bones in the pelvis

65

Name the type of bones which are small and oval, and develop inside and beside tendons. Give examples

Sesamoid bones; Patella

66

The study of the joints, or articulations between bones.

Arthrology

67

Functional Classification:
Immovable joints

Synarthroses

68

Functional Classification
Slightly movable joints

Amphiarthroses

69

Functional Classification
Freely movable

Diarthroses

70

Name the three groups of joints?

Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial

71

Name the three types of Fibrous joints?

Syndesmosis, Suture, Gomphosis

72

Structural Classification
Name this fibrous immovable or slightly movable joint united by sheets of fibrous tissue.
Also name the functional class.

Syndesmosis
Functional: Synarthroses or Amphiarthroses

73

Give an example of a Syndesmosis joint.

The inferior tibiofibular joint

74

Structural Classification
Name this fibrous immovable joint occuring only in the skull.
Also name the functional class.

Suture
Functional: Synarthroses

75

Structural Classification
Name this fibrous immovable joint occuring only in the roots of the teeth
Also name the functional class.

Gomphosis
Functional: Synarthroses

76

Name the two types of Cartilaginous joints:

Symphysis, Synchondrosis

77

Structural Classification
Name this cartilaginous slightly movable joint separated by a pad of fibrocartilage and designed for strength and shock absorbency.
Also name the functional class.

Symphysis
Functional: Ampiarthroses

78

Give an example of a symphysis joint:

The joint between the two pubic bones (pubic symphysis)

79

Structural Classification
Name this cartilaginous immovable joint that contains a rigid cartilage that units two bones.
Also name the functional class.

Synchondrosis
Funtional: Synarthrosis

80

Give an example of a synchondrosis joint:

The epiphyseal plate found between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a growing long bone.

81

Name the six types of Synovial joints:

1. Gliding (or Plane)
2. Hinge (or Ginglymus)
3. Pivot (or Trochoid)
4. Ellipsoid (or Condyloid)
5. Saddle (or Sellar)
6. Ball and Socket (Spheroid)

82

Structural Classification
Name this synovial joint with uniaxial movement, that permits slight movement, and contain flattened or slightly curved surfaces.
Also name the functional class.

Gliding (or Plane)
Funtional: Diarthroses

83

Give an example of a Gliding (or Plane) joint?

The intertarasal and intercarpal joints of the ankles and wrists.

84

Structural Classification
Name this synovial joint with uniaxial movement, that permits only flexion and extension:
Also name the functional class.

Hinge (or Ginglymus)
Functional: Diarthroses

85

Give an example of the Hinge (or Ginglymus) joint:

The elbow knee, and ankle

86

Structural Classification
Name this synovial joint with uniaxial movement, that permits rotation around a single axis.
Also name the functional class

Pivot (or trochoid)
Functional: Diarthroses

87

Give an example of the Pivot (or trochoid) joint:

The articulation of the atlas and axis of the cervical spine

88

Structural Classification
Name this synovial joint with biaxial movement, that permits movement in two directions at right angles to each other.
Also name the functional class.

Ellipsoid (condyloid)
Functional: Diarthroses

89

Give an example of the Ellipsoid (or condyloid) joint:

The radiocarpal joint of the wrist

90

Structural Classification
Name this synovial joint with biaxial movement, that permits movement in two axes, similar to the ellipsoid joint.
Also name the functional class.

The Saddle joint (or spheroid)
Functional: Diarthroses

91

Structural Classification
Name this synovial joint with multiaxial movement, and permits movement in many axes, including flexion, and extension, abdution, and aduction.
Also name the functional class.

Ball and socket ( or spheroid)
Funtional: Diarthroses

92

What are all bones composed of?

outer layer called compact bone which protects the bone and supports the body and an inner layer called spongy bone that contain trabeculae

93

What does red marrow produce?

red and white blood cells.

94

What does yellow marrow do?

stores adipose (fat) cells.

95

What are the knoblike projections of the bone called and what is the function?

tubercles and tuberosities which are covered by the Periosteum, the projections serve as contact point for muscles, ligaments and tendons to attach to.

96

Where do blood vessels and nerves enter and exit through?

foramina (part of the Periosteum)

97

Processes and projections

extend beyond or project out from the main body of a bone.

98

Processes and projections:
condyle

rounded process at an articular extremity

99

Processes and projections:
coracoid or coronoid

beakike or crownlike process

100

Processes and projections
crest

ridgelike process

101

Processes and projections
epiccondyle

projection above a condyle

102

Processes and projections
facet

small, smooth - surfaced process for articulation with another structure.

103

Processes and projections
hamulus

hook-shaped process

104

Processes and projections
head

expanded end of a long bone

105

Processes and projections
horn

hornlike process on a bone

106

Processes and projections
line

less prominent ridge than a crest; a linear elevation.

107

Processes and projections
malleolus

club-shaped process

108

Processes and projections
protuberance

projecting part or prominence

109

Processes and projections
spine

sharp process

110

Processes and projections
styloid

long, pointed process

111

Processes and projections
trochanter

either of two large, rounded, and elevated processes (greater or major and lessor or minor) located at junction of neck and shaft of femur

112

Processes and projections
tubercle

small, rounded, and elevated process

113

Processes and projections
tuberosity

large, rounded and elevated process

114

What is a depression?

hollow or depressed areas

115

Depression
fissure

cleft or deep groove

116

Depression
foremen

hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves.

117

Depression
fossa

pit, fovea, or hollow space

118

Depression
groove

shallow linear channel

119

Depression
meatus

tubelike passageway running within a bone.

120

Depression
notch

indentation into border of a bone.

121

Depression
sinus

recess, groove, cavity, or hollow space, such as (1) recess or groove in bone, as used to designate a channel for venous blood on inner surface of cranium; (2) air cavity in bone or hollow space in other tissue (used to designate a hollow space within a bone, as in paranasal sinuses; (3) fustula or supporting channel in soft tissue.

122

Depression
sulcus

furrow, trench, or fissurelike depression

123

What is a fracture

a break in the bone.

124

How are fracture classified?

According to the nature of the break

125

Fracture
closed

fracture that does not break through the skin

126

Fracture
displaced

serious fracture in which bones are not in anatomic allignment

127

Fracture
nondisplaced

fracture in which bone retains its normal alignment

128

Fracture
open/compound

serious fracture in which broken bone or bones project through the skin

129

what are the common classifications of fractures?

compression
open or compound
simple
greenstick
transverse
spiral or oblique
comminuted
impacted

130

What does anterior (ventral) mean?

refers to forward or front part of the body or forward part of an organ

131

What does posterior (dorsal) mean?

refers to forward or back part of the body organ
(note, however that the superior surface of the foot is referred to as the dorsal surface.

132

What does caudad mean?

refers to parts away from the head of the body

133

What does cephalad mean?

refers to parts towards the head of the body

134

What does inferior mean?

refers to nearer the feet or situated below

135

What does superior mean?

refers to nearer the head or situated above

136

What does central mean?

refers to middle area or main part of organ

137

What does peripheral mean?

refers to parts at or near the surface, edge, or outside if another body part

138

What does ipsilateral mean?

refers to part or parts on the same side of the body

139

What does contralateral mean?

refers to part or parts on the opposite side of the body

140

What does lateral mean?

refers to parts away from the medium plane of the body or away from the middle of another body part to the right or left

141

What does medial mean?

refers to parts toward the medium plane of the body or toward the middle of another part of the body

142

What does deep mean?

refers to parts far from the surface

143

What does superficial mean?

refers to parts near the skin or surface

144

What does distal mean?

refers to parts farthest from the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning; away from center of body

145

What does proximal mean?

refers to parts nearer the point of attachment, point of reference origin, or beginning; toward the center of the body

146

What does external mean?

refers to parts outside an organ or on the outside of the body

147

What does internal mean?

refers to parts within or on the inside of an organ

148

What does parietal mean?

refers to the wall or lining of a body cavity

149

What does visceral mean?

refers to the covering of an organ

150

What does dorsum mean?

refers to the top or anterior surface of the foot or to the back or posterior surface of the hand

151

What does palmar mean?

refers to the palm of the hand

152

What does plantar mean?

refers to the sole of the foot

153

What are the four positioning terms most used in radiology?

1. projection
2. position
3 view
4. method

154

Define projection

the path of the central ray as it exits the xray tube and goes through the patient to the IR.

Most projections are defined by the entrance and exit points in the body and are based on ANATOMIC POSITION.

155

Relationship projections

relationship formed by the central and the body as the central ray passes through the entire body or body part.

examples include the axial and tangential projections.

156

Anteroposterior projection

a perpendicular central ray enters the anterior body surface and exits posterior body surfaces.

157

Anteroposterior projection - patient postions

supine or dorsal recumbent body position, upright position, seated position or lateral decubitus position

158

Posteroanterior projection

a perpendicular central ray enters the posterior body surface and exits anterior body surfaces.

159

Posteroanterior projection - patient positions

upright
seated
prone ( ventral recumbent)
lateral decubitus

160

Axial projection

there is longitudinal angulation of the central ray with the long axis of the body or specific body part.

161

Axial projection - patient positions

based on the anatomic position and is most often produced by angling the central ray cephalad or caudad. (can be obtained with the patient in virtually any body position.

162

Axial

refers to all projections in which the longitudinal angulation between the central ray and the long axis of the body part is 10 degrees or more.

163

Tangential position

occasionally the central ray is directed toward the outer margin of the curved body surface to profile a body part just under the surface and project free of superimposition.

Relationship is formed between the central ray and the entire body or body part

164

Lateral projection

perpendicular central ray enters one side of the body or body part, passes transversely along the coronal plane, and exits opposite side.

165

Left or right lateral postion

specifies the side of the body closest to the IR

166

Oblique projection

central ray enters the body or body part from a single angle following an oblique plane. May enter from either side of body and from anterior and posterior surfaces.

167

AP oblique projection

enters anterior surface and exits the opposite posterior surface

168

PA oblique projection

enters posterior surface and exits anteriorly.

169

What type of positioning would RPO be?

Right Posterior Oblique - places the right posterior surface closest to the IR and corresponds with an AP projection exiting through the same side.

170

True projections

Body part must be placed EXACTLY in the anatomic position.

171

In Profile

is an outlined or silhouette view of an anatomic structure that has a distinctive shape.

172

Postion

Used in 2 ways in radiology
1. identifies the overall posture of the patient or the general body position.
2 specific placement of the body part in relation to the radiographic table or IR during imaging.

173

General Body Position used in radiography practice
upright

erect or marked by a vertical postion

174

General Body Position used in radiography practice
seated

upright position in which the patient is sitting on a chair or stool

175

General Body Position used in radiography practice
recumbent

general term referring to lying down in any position such as dorsal recumbent, ventral recumbent, or lateral recumbent

176

General Body Position used in radiography practice
supine

lying on the back

177

General Body Position used in radiography practice
prone

lying face down

178

Lateral position

lateral radiographic positions are always named according to the side of the patient that is placed closest to the IR.

179

Oblique position

achieved when the entire body or body part is rotated so that the coronal is not parallel with the radiographic table or IR.

Named according to the side of the patient that is placed closest to the IR.

180

decubitus position

indicates that the patient is lying down and that the central ray is horizontal and parallel with the floor.

181

Name the 3 primary decubitus positions

lateral decubitus (left or right)
dorsal decubitus
ventral decubitus

182

Which primary decubitus position is used most often?

lateral

183

Lordotic position

achieved by having the patient lean backward while in the upright body position so that only the shoulders are in contact with the IR.

184

Body Movement Terminology
abduct or abduction

movement from a part away from the central axis of the body or body part.

185

Body Movement Terminology
adduct or adduction

movement from a part toward the central axis of the body or body part.

186

Body Movement Terminology
extension

straightening of a joint when both elements of the joint are in the atomic position; normal position of joint.

187

Body Movement Terminology
flexion

act of bending a joint, opposite of extension

188

Body Movement Terminology
hyperextension

forced or excessive extension of a limb or joints.

189

Body Movement Terminology
hyperflexion

forced overflexion of a limb or joints

190

Body Movement Terminology
evert/eversion

outward turning of the foot at the ankle

191

Body Movement Terminology
invert/inversion

inward turning of the foot at the ankle

192

Body Movement Terminology
pronate/pronation

rotation of the forearm so that the palm is down.

193

Body Movement Terminology
supinate/supination

rotation of the forearm so that the palm is up.

194

Body Movement Terminology
rotate/rotation

turning or rotating of a body or a body part around its axis rotation of a limb is either medial (toward the midline of the body from the anatomic position or lateral (away from the midline of the body from the anatomic position.

195

Body Movement Terminology
circumduction

circular movement of a limb

196

Body Movement Terminology
tilt

tipping or slanting a body part slightly; tilt is in relation to the long axis of the body.

197

Body Movement Terminology
deviation

turning away from the regular standard or course

198

Body Movement Terminology
dorsiflexion

flexion or bending the foot toward the leg

199

Body Movement Terminology
plantar flexion

flexion or bending the foot downward toward the sole.

200

What are the four fundamental body planes referred regularly in radiography?

1. Sagittal
2. Coronal
3. Horizontal
4. Oblique

201

The body plane that divides the entire body or a body part into right and left segments . It passes VERTICALLY through the body from from to back.

Sagittal

202

The body plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left halves.

Mid-Sagittal

203

The body plane that divides the entire body or a body part into anterior and posterior segments. It passes through the body vertically from one side to the other.

Coronal

204

A specific body plane that passes through the midline of the body, dividing it into equal anterior and posterior halves.

Mid-Coronal

205

The mid-coronal plane is also known as?

mid-axillary plane

206

The body plane that passes crosswise through the body or body part at right angles to the longitudinal axis.

Horizontal

207

The Horizontal plane is also referred to as?

Transverse , axial, cross-sectional plane

208

The body angle that can pass through a body part at any angle among any of the other planes.

Oblique

209

What are the two great cavities of the torso?

Thoracic and Abdominal

210

The body cavity that is sub-divided into a pericardial segment and two pleural portions.

Thoracic cavity

211

The body cavity that has no intervening partition, the lower portion is called the pelvic cavity

Abdominal cavity

212

The body cavity containing:
Pleural membranes
Lungs
Esophagus
Pericardium
Heart and great vessels

Thoracic cavity

213

The body cavity containing:
Peritoneum
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Spleen
Stomach
Intestines
Kidneys
Ureters

Abdominal cavity

214

Name the methods the abdomen can be divided.

Four quadrants or Nine regions

215

Name the four clinical divisions in the quadrant method.

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)