RT 210- CR/DR digital definitions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RT 210- CR/DR digital definitions Deck (104):
1

testing that occurs to ensure equipment or processes are functioning within acceptable limits

Acceptance testing

2

historical collection of images stored in PACS

archive

3

avoidable extraneous information on the image that interferes or distracts from image quality

artifacts

4

soft polymer that protects the back of the cassette

backing layer

5

label attached either to the cassette or to the imaging plate that identifies the plate for the purpose of matching the examination to the plate

barcode label

6

photostimulable phosphor located in the imaging plate

barium fluorohalide

7

contains a simple set of instructions for the computer to perform several basic functions, such as, boot up, run hardware diagnostics, interpret keyboard signals, and so on...

basic input/ output system (BIOS)

8

machine language of 1s and 0s

binary code

9

single unit of data

bit

10

series of connections, controllers, and chips that creates the information highway of the computer

bus

11

type of network setup in which each of the computers and network devices are connected to a single cable

bus topology

12

made up of 8 bits and is the amount of memory needed to store one alphanumeric character

byte

13

rigid plastic housing for the imaging plate

cassette

14

small chip found on the motherboard that manipulates data sent from a program; brains of the computer

central processing unit (CPU)

15

Newer type of amorphous silicon detector that uses a cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator; the scintillator is made by growing very thin crystalline needles (5 micrometers wide) that work as light-directing tubes, much like fiberoptics

cesium iodide scintillator (CsI)

16

coupling devices that act as cameras that link phosphor signals to a signal

charge-coupled device (CCD)

17

Similar to a server-based network, in that there is a centralized computer that controls the operations of the network, but rather than sending the entire original resource to the client for processing, the server processes the resource as requested by the client and returns only the result back to the client

client-based network

18

Area within the conductive layer where electrons are trapped

Color layer; also known as Phosphor Layer

19

Cassette-based digital radiography is the digital acquisition modality that uses storage phosphor plates to produce projection images

Computed Radiography (CR)

20

Programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data

Computer

21

Layer of material that will absorb and reduce static electricity

Conductive Layer

22

Alternative set of terms for total quality magement that includes maintenance of equipment, image acquistion, and processing standards

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI

23

Conversion of the digital image using contrast enhancement parameters

Contrast manipulation

24

Measurement of how efficiently a system converts x-ray input signal into a useful output image

Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE)

25

Actual physical size, length and width, of the x-ray detector

Detector Size

26

Digital imaging and communications in medicine; it is a global information technology standard that allows network communication between modality and PACS

DICOM

27

Any image acquisition process that produces an electronic image that can be viewed and manipulated on a computer

Digital Imaging

28

Cassette-less systems use an x-ray absorber material coupled to a flat panel detector or a charged-coupled device to form the image

Digital Radiography (DR)

29

digital storage device that can hold up to seven times more than the CD, which equates to about 9.4 (single-sided) to 17GB (double-sided) of data; in a DVD, there are multiple layers of the polycarbonate plastic

Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)

30

These devices convert the incident x-ray energy directly into an electrical signal, typically using a photoconductor as the x-ray absorber and a thin-film transistor as the signal collection area, and send the electrical signal to the computer for processing and viewing

Direct Capture Digital Radiography

31

Conversion of X-ray energy to electrical signals without the light-conversion step

Direct Conversion

32

Generally a display monitor where postprocessing occurs or where images can be viewed

Display workstation

33

Printer that uses heat to develop the film

Dry Imager

34

Enhancement occurs when fewer pixels in the neighborhood are included in the signal average; the smaller the neighborhood, the greater the enhancement

Edge Enhancement

35

Term used by Kodak to express exposure values

Exposure Index (EI)

36

Device that scans hard copy x-ray images and converts them to digital images

Film Digitizer

37

Detector that consists of a photoconductor, wihich holds a charge on its surface that can be read out by a thin-film transistor

Flat Panel Detector

38

The number of grid lines per inch

Grid Frequency

39

The ratio of the height of the grid line to the width of the interspace material

Grid Ratio

40

The main repository for programs and documents on the computer

Hard Drive

41

Graphic representation of all of the digitally recorded signals of a digital x-ray exposure, measures amount of light/signal going to pixels or voxels

Histogram

42

Health Level 7; Standard protocol used for medical data systems

HL-7

43

Information system used throughout the hospital, includes the direct patient care information, billing systems, and reporting systems

Hospital Information System (HIS)

44

Identification of the top or side of an image

Image Orientation

45

Process of "sewing" together multiple images to form one continuous image

Image Stitching

46

Process of sending the digital image to PACS or CD

Image Storage

47

Thin piece of plastic with several layers of material that capture and store image data

Imaging Plate

48

Devices that absorb x-rays and convert them into light; the light is then detected by an area-charge-coupled device or thin-film transistor array in concert with photodiodes, and then converted into an electrical signal that is sent to the computer for processing and viewing

Indirect Capture Direct Radiography

49

Two-step process in which x-ray photons are converted to light and then the light photons are converted to an electrical signal

Indirect Conversion

50

Acronym meaning: kilovoltage peak

kVp

51

Amplification of stimulated emission of radiation, a device that creates and amplifies a narrow, intense beam of coherent light

Laer

52

The amount of error that can be made in exposure factor choices and still result in the capture of a quality image

Latitude

53

Image manipulation parameter that changes screen image contrast usually through the use of a mouse

Level

54

Small area networked with a series of cables or wireless access points so that the computers can share information and devices on the same network

Local Area Network (LAN)

55

A term used by Agfa to express exposure to the imaging plate

Logarithm of the Median Exposure (IgM)

56

Reference histgram of the luminance values derived during image acquisition

Look-up table (LUT)

57

Short-term magnetic disk storage, usuallly found in arrays (RAID)

Magnetic Disk Storage

58

Term for enlargement of an image in all dimensions without loss of sharpness

Magnification

59

Acronym meaning: milliamperage per seconds

mAs

60

Rectangular or square table of numbers that represent the pixel intensity to be displayed on the monitor

Matrix

61

Used to store information being currently processed within the central processing unit

Memory

62

The ability of a system to record available spatial frequencies

Modulation Transfer Function

63

Grid line or image noise pattern that occurs when either the alignment of the grid to the laser scan direction is incorrect or when spatial frequency is greater than the Nyquist frequency; a wraparaound image will result

moire

64

Largest circuitry board inside the computer; it contains many important small components to make the computer function properly

Motherboard

65

Two or more objects sharing resources and informatio; interconnected computers, terminals, and servers connected by communication channels sharing data and program resources

Network

66

When sampling a signal such as the conversion from an analog to a digital image, the sampling frequency must be greater than twice the bandwidth of the input signal so that the reconstruction of the original image will be nearly perfect

Nyquist Theorem

67

Software that controls the computer hardware and acts as a bridge between applications and the hardware

Operating System (OS)

68

Acronym meaning: Picture Archival and Communication System; consists of digital acquisition, display workstations, and storage devices interconnected through a network

PACS

69

Input information regarding patient age, identifying number, ordering physician, and so on

Patient Demographics

70

Layer of photostimuable phosphor that "traps" electrons during exposure; usually made of phosphors form the barium fluorohalide family (e.g., barium fluorohalide, chlorohalide, or bromohalide crystals)

Phosphor Layer

71

Device used to measure the luminescence of areas on the monitor

Photometer

72

Electronic device that amplifies light energy- image directly obtained (no cassette/film)

Photomultiplier

73

Light produced by a phosphor when struck by light or x-ray photons

Photostimulable Luminescence

74

Networked group of computers, servers, and archives that can be used to manage digital images

Picture Archival and Communication System

75

The smallest/ basic picture element on a display

Pixel

76

Delivers all electricity and provides connections to power devices in the computer

Power Supply

77

Periodic testing of equipment and materials before problem occurrence

Preventative Maintenance (PM)

78

Very thin, tough, clear plastic covering in the imaging plate for protection of the phosphor layer

Protective Layer

79

Another term for quality management, which is now considered antiquated; typically focuses on the person rather than the process

Quality Assurance (QA)

80

Subdivision of quality management that focuses on equipment functions

Quality Control (QC)

81

A dedicated computer and monitor for the purpose of reviewing images

Quality Control (QC) station

82

Failure of an imaging system to record densities usually caused by a lack of x-ray photons

Quantum Mottle

83

Recording error in the digital image

Quantum Noise

84

The information system used in the radiology department for ordering examinations and reporting results

Radiology Information System (RIS)

85

Zigzag electron scanning pattern

Raster

86

Composed of serveral magnetic disks or hard drives that are linked together in an arrya

Redundant Array o Independent Disks (RAID)

87

Layer in the imaging plate that sends light in a forward direction when released in the cassette reader; this may be black to reduce the spread of stimulating light and the escape of emitted light; some detail is lost in this process

Reflective Layer

88

Number of pixels contained on a display

Resolution

89

Synonomous with preventitive maintainance of equipment that occurs before problem occurrences

Routine Maintenance

90

Term used by Fuji Medical to express exposure

S, sensitivity number

91

Computer that manages resources for other computers, servers, and networked devices

Server

92

Used to blacken out the white collimation borders in a digital image, effectively eliminating veil glare

Shuttering

93

Also known as low-pass filtering, the result of averaging each pixel's frequency with surrounding pixel values to remove high frequency noise

Smoothing

94

Reading images on the computer without hardcopy films

Softcopy

95

Amount of detail or sharpness in a digital image

Spatial Frequency Resolution

96

In conventional radiography, speed is determined by the size and layers of crystals in the film and screen; computed radiography system “speeds” are a reflection of the amount of photostimulable luminescence given off by the imaging plate while being scanned by the laser

Speed

97

Network that has the devices connected to a central hub or switch

Star Topology

98

Semigrid material in the imaging plate that gives the imaging sheet some strength

Support Layer

99

Moving images via telephone lines to and from remote locations

Teleradiology

100

The organization that accredits health care organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, and labs

The Joint Commission

101

Photosensitive array, made up of small (about 100 to 200 micrometer) pixels, converts the light into electrical charges

Thin-Film Transistor (TFT)

102

Physical (geometric) layout of the connected devices on a network

Topology

103

Network that spans a large area, city, state, nation, continent, and/or world

Wide Area Network (WAN)

104

Image manipulation parameter that changes screen image brightness usually through the use of a mouse

Window