RT 208 Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RT 208 Respiratory System Deck (26):
1

nose to larynx and lower respiratory tract
trachea onwards

upper respiratory tract

2

upper respiratory tract
Transports air
Includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and progressively smaller airways, from the primary bronchi to the terminal bronchioles

Conducting portion

3

upper respiratory tract
Carries out gas exchange
composed of small airways called respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts and alveoli (air sacs)

Respiratory portion

4

Respiratory System Functions
Filters inspired air
Produces sound
Supplies the body with oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide
Contains receptors for smell
Rids the body of some excess water and heat
Regulate blood pH

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5

Two phases of Breathing

Inhalation and Exhalation
or Inspiration and Expiration

6

To draws gases into the lungs

Inhalation

7

To force gases out of the lungs

Exhalation

8

A layer of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus

Respiratory mucosa

9

Found in nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx and trachea, secrete mucus

Respiratory mucosa

10

These tiny hair like structures move mucus up toward the mouth

Cilia of the Respiratory mucosa

11

mucous membranes that contain smell receptors

olfactory mucosa

12

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet cells that secrete mucus which traps inhaled particles

respiratory mucosa

13

Nose
kills bacteria and lymphocytes

Lysozyme

14

Nose
protect against bacteria

IgA antibodies

15

Nose
folds in the mucous membrane that increase air turbulence and ensures that most air contacts the mucous membranes

Nasal conchae

16

Nose
opening to pharynx

External nares

17

Five factors of the nose
1. Provides an airway for respiration
2. Moistens and warms entering air
3. Filters and cleans inspired air
4. Resonating chamber for speech
5. Detects odors in the air stream

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18

surgery to change shape of external nose

Rhinoplasty

19

Pharynx
Common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems.
Commonly called the throat.
Originates posterior to the nasal and oral cavities
Extends inferiorly near the level of the bifurcation of the larynx and esophagus.
Common pathway for both air and food.
Walls are lined by a mucosa and contain skeletal muscles
primarily used for swallowing.
Flexible lateral walls are distensible in order to force swallowed food into the esophagus.

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20

Superior-most region of the pharynx
Located directly posterior to the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate
which separates the oral cavity.
Normally, only air passes through.

Nasopharynx

21

Oropharynx
The middle pharyngeal region.
posterior to the oral cavity.
Bounded by the edge of the soft palate superiorly and the hyoid bone inferiorly.
Common respiratory and digestive pathway through which both air and swallowed food and drink pass.
Lymphatic organs here provide the first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign materials.
Palatine tonsils are on the lateral wall between the arches,
Lingual tonsils are at the base of the tongue.
Defense mechanism: gag reflex

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22

Laryngopharynx
Inferior, narrowed region of the pharynx.
Extends inferiorly from the hyoid bone to the larynx and esophagus.
Terminates at the superior border of the esophagus and the epiglottis of the larynx.
Permits passage of both food and air.

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23

Larynx
Voice box
Short, somewhat cylindrical airway
Ends in the trachea.
Prevents swallowed materials from entering the lower respiratory tract.
Conducts air into the lower respiratory tract.
Produces sounds.
Supported by a framework of nine pieces of cartilage

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24

Larynx
Nine c-rings of cartilage form the framework of the larynx
Thyroid cartilage
(1) Adam’s apple, hyaline, anterior attachment of vocal folds
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Cricoid cartilage
(1) ring-shaped, hyaline
Arytenoid cartilages
(2) hyaline, posterior attachment of vocal folds
Cuneiform cartilages
(2) hyaline
Corniculate cartlages
(2) hyaline
Epiglottis
(1) elastic cartilage

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25

Larynx
Muscular walls aid in voice production and the swallowing reflex
Glottis
the superior opening of the larynx
Epiglottis
prevents food and drink from entering airway when swallowing

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26

Sound production
Inferior ligaments are called the vocal folds.
- are true vocal cordsモbecause they produce sound when air passes between them
Superior ligaments are called the vestibular folds
Are false vocal cordsモbecause they have no function in sound production
but protect the vocal folds.
The tension, length, and position of the vocal folds determine the quality of the sound.

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