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Flashcards in Scenario 15 Deck (102)
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91

What is the structure of a mature HIV-1 particle?

Outer envelope consists of a lipid bilayer and inside a shell of gag proteins, core contains two genomic RNA strands tRNA^lys and 50 copies of each viral enzyme

92

What are the basic steps of retroviral replication?

Attachment and receptor binding, membrane fusion and entry (requires CD4 and a chemokine receptor CDR5/CXCR4), uncoating and reverse transcription, nuclear import, intergration (RT makes a full length dsDNA which is cut in a stagerred cut at 3' end short replication of target sequence and gap repair), transcription, RNA processing, nuclear export, translation, assembly, budding (24hours)

93

What are the regulatory/accesory proteins

Adaptors that facilitate molecular interactions, good models for study, evasion of host mechanism, therapeutic targets

94

When should HAART be started?

When CD4 count reaches 300 (central to adaptive immunity)

95

What correlates with the recovery from acute infection and the suppression of the virus burden?

CD8 T cell response

96

What correlates with the disease stage?

CD4 T cells

97

What correlates with the tempo of the disease?

Viral set point

98

What are the current targets of HAART?

Protease inhibitors and RT inhibitors

99

What is the pathology of TB?

granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis in the centre (filled with pus) perhaps with visible acid fast bacili

100

What does it show on a CT scan?

Extensive consolidation with a cavity- cavitating pneumonia

101

How can you test for latent TB?

Mantoux test, interferon gamma release assay (more specific)

102

What is the treatment for TB?

Chemo- 4 drugs for 2 months then 2 drugs for another 2 months