Science Test 7, Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

8th Science - Earth and Space > Science Test 7, Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Science Test 7, Chapter 7 Deck (44):
1

The outermost layer of the atmosphere is the

exosphere

2

Air flowing up a mountain's slope due to differences in temperature and pressure is a(n) ____ wind.

anabatic

3

What type of wind occurs when dense, cold air flows from higher to lower elevations due to gravity?

fall wind

4

What very dry and often dusty wind blows in Southern California?

Santa Ana

5

Which layer of the atmosphere ''bounces'' certain types of radio waves back toward the ground?

ionosphere

6

Heat transfer by electromagnetic waves is

radiation

7

Heat transfer by moving currents of hot air is

convection

8

A cool, gentle wind that blows from the land to the sea is a

land breeze

9

What is the most powerful and dangerous form of UV radiation?

UVC

10

What type of radiation causes tanning and sunburns?

UVB

11

Which layer of the atmosphere is characterized by high temperatures?

thermosphere

12

The most abundant gas in the homosphere is

nitrogen

13

The process in which the temperature of a gas rises as the gas is compressed with no heat is lost is ___ heating.

adiabatic

14

The coldest point in the atmosphere is the

mesopause

15

What marks the upper boundary of the thermosphere?

thermopause

16

Which of the following statements is false?

Insolation warms water more quickly than it warms land.

17

Winds that reverse their direction from season to season are called

monsoons

18

A warm, dry wind that travels down a slope is a

foehn

19

Label each convection cell beside the corresponding number.

polar cell, Ferrel cell, Hadley cell

20

Upper troposphere waves that play a large part in the formation of cyclones and anticyclones are called

Rossby waves

21

The four main factors that affect insolation are __, __, ___, and Earth's distance from the sun.

Cloud cover, length of daytime, angle of the sun's rays

22

The scientific name for the northern and southern lights is

auroras

23

The layer of the atmosphere that acts as a ''shield'' to protect the earth's surface is the

ozone layer

24

least understood layer of the atmosphere

mesosphere

25

the atmosphere's ''weather layer''

troposphere

26

strong, steady winds but few changes of weather

stratosphere

27

portion of the earth's magnetic field that is affected by the solar winds

magnetosphere

28

What term refers to the decimal equivalent of solar radiation that an object reflects?

albedo

29

What is the blanket of gases that surrounds our planet?

atmosphere

30

What is a circulating spiral of wind around a low-pressure system?

cyclone

31

What term refers to the amount of energy available to hear the earth's land, water, and air?

energy budget

32

Name the process that traps heat in the earth's atmosphere.

greenhouse effect

33

What beltlike regions surround the earth and trap particles from the solar wind?

Van Allen radiation belts

34

regions of high pressure and gentle wind at 30* north and south latitude

horse latitudes

35

surface winds that blow from high-pressure regions toward the equator

trade winds

36

equatorial zone where sailing ships were often left without wind

ITCZ

37

high-altitude wind in a narrow, meandering band

jet stream

38

A circulating spiral of wind around a high-pressure system is called a ____

anticyclone

39

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is ___ pounds per square inch.

14.7

40

Extremely powerful radiation that comes from deep space is ____

cosmic rays

41

The most important greenhouse gas is ____

water vapor

42

The region in which a magnet affects other objects is the _____

magnetic field

43

The lower layer of the atmosphere is the ____

homosphere

44

Explain what the Coriolis effect is and why it occurs.

* The Coriolis effect is the way in which the earth's rotation causes a change in the course of the winds.

* One factor that causes the Coriolis effect is inertia, the tendency for matter to stay at rest if at rest or to continue moving if in motion. Inertia makes an object tend to keep the same condition of motion with which it started out.

* Another factor that causes the Coriolis effect is that objects on the earth's rotating surface travel at different speeds depending on their distance from the axis.

* The combined effect of these two factors causes an apparent shift in the earth's winds as they move north and south.

Decks in 8th Science - Earth and Space Class (48):