Flashcards in Test 3 (Nine-Weeks Exam), Ch. 1 - 3 Deck (70):
The largest group of minerals, which compose over 90% of the earth's crust, are the
The layer of solid rock below the soil is
The rarest, most durable, and most beautiful minerals are
Substances that are found naturally in the earth and have a crystalline structure are
A theory that has never been proven false is a
chemical sediments that result from the evaporation of water are
a well-known chemical sedimentary rock is
a soil substance composed of decayed organisms' particles is
The most famous measure of earthquake strength, which rates earthquakes on a scale of 1 to 10 is the
Richter magnitude scale
Rocks that have a smooth, glasslike texture are
Which earthquake zone includes the San Andreas Fault?
The metal that is more valuable than gold or silver is
Hard, round structures that form when minerals settle out of water and crystallize around a sand grain or other mineral fragment are called
The measure of the pull of gravity on an object is
The group on which a test is performed is called the
A volcano that will probably not erupt again is called
Beryl that has a deep green color is
The 3rd step in the scientific method is
formulate a hypothesis
The inner core of the earth is thought to be
A metal mixture of iron and carbon is
Brass is an alloy of ___ and zinc.
Mining that uses a rotating drum that travels down a long track while grinding coal is called ____ mining.
Crystals are generally characterized by many flat surfaces called
The most basic unit of matter is the
About 80% of the world's earthquakes occur in
the circum-Pacific belt
The breakdown of organisms is known as
Any piece of solid volcanic ejecta is a
type of rock formed when magma solidifies
type of rock formed when deposits of sand and mineral fragments are cemented together
type of rock formed when preexisting rocks are altered by heat or pressure
any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element
The branch of geology that deals with the identification and classification of minerals is
the bending or buckling of rocks under great force produces a
Aluminum is refined from the common mineral
The most abundant metal in the earth's crust is
The type of soil that contains a mixture of sand, silt, clay, and humus is
The change of one type of rock into a new type of rock is
The number that compares an object's density to the density of water is called
The study of soil is
The hardest naturally occurring known substance is
A mineral that remains glowing after being exposed to ultraviolet light and then placed in the dark exhibits
the most common element in the earth's crust is
A "self pumping" well is an
A substance with a pH of 10 would be
the most common of all igneous rocks
igneous rock with a smooth, glasslike texture; known as "volcanic glass"
the most common sedimentary rock
rock that consists of smooth pebbles embedded in hardened sand or clay
an organic sedimentary rock that is also called a fossil fuel
What term refers to the way light is reflected from the surface of a mineral crystal?
What do mineralogists call an element that occurs naturally in its pure form, uncombined with other elements?
What is a single layer of sedimentary rock called?
What nutrient makes a plant's fruits "firm up" properly?
What is another name for a bar of refined gold?
What is an alloy of iron, carbon, and nickel or chromium?
What are geometric structures composed of atoms or molecules in an orderly arrangement?
Name the narrow zone of active volcanoes that nearly encircles the Pacific basin.
Ring of Fire
What type of lava has a smooth texture with a "ropy" appearance?
What mineral test leaves a line of powder on a plate?
What are the upper layers of the ground stripped away by surface mining called?
What is the name for a substance that is composed of only one type of atom?
earthquake waves that vibrate at right angles to the direction of wave travel
point at which an earthquake begins
fastest earthquake waves
term for small earthquakes that follow an earthquake for days or even months
rocks on either side of a fault spring back to a position of little or no strain
giant sea waves
instrument that records and studies the vibrations from an earthquake