Test 3 (Nine-Weeks Exam), Ch. 1 - 3 Flashcards Preview

8th Science - Earth and Space > Test 3 (Nine-Weeks Exam), Ch. 1 - 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 (Nine-Weeks Exam), Ch. 1 - 3 Deck (70):
1

The largest group of minerals, which compose over 90% of the earth's crust, are the

silicates

2

The layer of solid rock below the soil is

bedrock

3

The rarest, most durable, and most beautiful minerals are

precious stones

4

Substances that are found naturally in the earth and have a crystalline structure are

minerals

5

A theory that has never been proven false is a

law

6

chemical sediments that result from the evaporation of water are

evaporites

7

a well-known chemical sedimentary rock is

limestone

8

a soil substance composed of decayed organisms' particles is

humus

9

The most famous measure of earthquake strength, which rates earthquakes on a scale of 1 to 10 is the

Richter magnitude scale

10

Rocks that have a smooth, glasslike texture are

amorphous

11

Which earthquake zone includes the San Andreas Fault?

circum-Pacific belt

12

The metal that is more valuable than gold or silver is

platinum

13

Hard, round structures that form when minerals settle out of water and crystallize around a sand grain or other mineral fragment are called

concretions

14

The measure of the pull of gravity on an object is

weight

15

The group on which a test is performed is called the

experimental group

16

A volcano that will probably not erupt again is called

extinct

17

Beryl that has a deep green color is

emerald

18

The 3rd step in the scientific method is

formulate a hypothesis

19

The inner core of the earth is thought to be

solid

20

A metal mixture of iron and carbon is

steel

21

Brass is an alloy of ___ and zinc.

copper

22

Mining that uses a rotating drum that travels down a long track while grinding coal is called ____ mining.

longwall

23

Crystals are generally characterized by many flat surfaces called

faces

24

The most basic unit of matter is the

atom

25

About 80% of the world's earthquakes occur in

the circum-Pacific belt

26

The breakdown of organisms is known as

decomposition

27

Any piece of solid volcanic ejecta is a

pyroclast

28

type of rock formed when magma solidifies

igneous rock

29

type of rock formed when deposits of sand and mineral fragments are cemented together

sedimentary rock

30

type of rock formed when preexisting rocks are altered by heat or pressure

metamorphic rock

31

any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element

ore

32

The branch of geology that deals with the identification and classification of minerals is

mineralogy

33

the bending or buckling of rocks under great force produces a

fold

34

Aluminum is refined from the common mineral

bauxite

35

The most abundant metal in the earth's crust is

aluminum

36

The type of soil that contains a mixture of sand, silt, clay, and humus is

loam

37

The change of one type of rock into a new type of rock is

metamorphism

38

The number that compares an object's density to the density of water is called

specific gravity

39

The study of soil is

pedology

40

The hardest naturally occurring known substance is

diamond

41

A mineral that remains glowing after being exposed to ultraviolet light and then placed in the dark exhibits

phosphorescence

42

the most common element in the earth's crust is

oxygen

43

A "self pumping" well is an

artesian well

44

A substance with a pH of 10 would be

basic

45

the most common of all igneous rocks

basalt

46

igneous rock with a smooth, glasslike texture; known as "volcanic glass"

obsidian

47

the most common sedimentary rock

shale

48

rock that consists of smooth pebbles embedded in hardened sand or clay

conglomerate rock

49

an organic sedimentary rock that is also called a fossil fuel

coal

50

What term refers to the way light is reflected from the surface of a mineral crystal?

luster

51

What do mineralogists call an element that occurs naturally in its pure form, uncombined with other elements?

native element

52

What is a single layer of sedimentary rock called?

stratum

53

What nutrient makes a plant's fruits "firm up" properly?

phosphorus

54

What is another name for a bar of refined gold?

bullion

55

What is an alloy of iron, carbon, and nickel or chromium?

stainless steel

56

What are geometric structures composed of atoms or molecules in an orderly arrangement?

crystals

57

Name the narrow zone of active volcanoes that nearly encircles the Pacific basin.

Ring of Fire

58

What type of lava has a smooth texture with a "ropy" appearance?

pahoehoe

59

What mineral test leaves a line of powder on a plate?

streak test

60

What are the upper layers of the ground stripped away by surface mining called?

overburden

61

What is the name for a substance that is composed of only one type of atom?

element

62

earthquake waves that vibrate at right angles to the direction of wave travel

S waves

63

point at which an earthquake begins

focus

64

weak earthquake

tremor

65

fastest earthquake waves

P waves

66

term for small earthquakes that follow an earthquake for days or even months

aftershock

67

rocks on either side of a fault spring back to a position of little or no strain

elastic rebound

68

giant sea waves

tsunamis

69

instrument that records and studies the vibrations from an earthquake

seismograph

70

point on the earth's surface directly above where an earthquake began

epicenter

Decks in 8th Science - Earth and Space Class (48):