Test 4, Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

8th Science - Earth and Space > Test 4, Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 4, Chapter 4 Deck (45):
1

A huge bowl-shaped depression dug out by a valley glacier is a(n)?

cirque

2

What is a natural ridge formed along the edge of a river's channel?

levee

3

Which type of weathering involves the breaking or peeling away of rock into layers?

exfoliation

4

A pillarlike structure of rock formed when the middle of a sea arch collapses is a

sea stack

5

The feature formed by streams merging and flowing toward the sea as a large river is a

river system

6

What is produced when a sea cave is eroded continually?

sea arch

7

Large, deep grooves and scratches in rock, produced by glaciers, are?

striae

8

The piles of debris left behind when a glacier melts are

moraines

9

A low hill formed when a glacier overruns a moraine is a?

drumlin

10

Deposits of clay and silt left by a sandstorm are

loess

11

What type of weathering occurs when rainwater soaks into cracks in a rock and freezes, splitting the rock?

ice wedging

12

When a glacier-carved valley fills with seawater, a(n) ____ forms.

fjord

13

Which natural acid, found in rainwater and ground water, promotes chemical weathering of rocks?

carbonic acid

14

The most important effect of wind erosion is

deflation

15

Regions of the earth's surface where limestone is exposed and abundant are called ____ regions

karst

16

Ice sheets smaller than continental glaciers are

ice caps!

17

A long pile of rocks deposited parallel to the shore to prevent erosion is a(n)

breakwater

18

The sharp, steeple-shaped point of a mountain with three or more cirques is a(n)

horn

19

A large, funnel-shaped depression in the ground caused by cavern collapse is a(n)

sinkhole

20

Narrow, sandy islands that lie off the coast of the mainland are called ____

barrier islands

21

The eroding action of windblown sand is called?

abrasion

22

Suspension, saltation, and creep, in which wind transports sediments, are ___ processes.

aeolian

23

The natural processes that break down rocks are collectively called ______

weathering

24

A spirelike mass of dripstone on the floor of a cave is called a ______

stalagmite

25

The method of erosion prevention that modifies a smooth slope into a series of level, stairlike steps is ________

terracing

26

The carrying away of rock fragments, such as by wind or running water, is called ____

erosion

27

The type of rock most commonly associated with caverns is _____

limestone

28

Particles too heavy to be lifted by the wind are rolled in short bursts through a process called _____

creep

29

the source of a river

headwaters

30

the sediments carried by a stream

load

31

one of the numerous streams that feed into a river at various points

tributary

32

land that borders a river and is covered by river water in flood time

floodplain

33

a winding, looping curve in a river on flat ground

meander

34

lake formed when a sharp curve in a river is cut off from the rest of the river

oxbow lake

35

fan-shaped deposit of sediments at the mouth of the river

delta

36

region of land drained by a stream or river system

drainage basin

37

a large stream that carries water from the mountains to the sea

river

38

fan-shaped deposit of sediments at the mouth of a dry steam bed in the desert

alluvial fan

39

What are two general types of weathering?

chemical weathering, physical weathering

40

What are the two major types of glaciers?

continental glacier, valley (or alpine) glacier

41

Name the deep cracks that develop on the surface of a glacier

crevasses

42

What are limestone formations that have become filled with various passageways and large caves called?

caverns

43

What is the main agent of chemical weathering?

water

44

What is a vertical face of rock called that forms when the sea erodes land?

sea cliff

45

List and describe three of the five major types of mass wasting.

* Soil creep is a very slow (few inches of movement or less per year) downslope movement of soil and rock fragments; it can be caused by soil expansion and contraction due to changes in heat and moisture or by the actions of plants and animals.

* Mudflows, the most fluid and fastest type of mass wasting, are rapid movements of loose, water-saturated soil.

* An avalanche occurs when a mass of ice and snow abruptly dislodges from a mountain face, usually as the result of a sharp noise or other disturbance. An avalanche may also involve rock fragments or vegetation.

* A landslide occurs when huge masses of rock or soil suddenly slide down a slope.

* Rockfalls occur when individual rock fragments break off the sides of a steep cliff after exposure to gradual weathering such as exfoliation.

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