Test 11, Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

8th Science - Earth and Space > Test 11, Chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 11, Chapter 11 Deck (53):
1

in which climate zone does every location have at least one day a year when the sun is directly overhead?

tropics

2

which method of measuring time uses time zones?

standard solar time

3

what type of time is based on the stars?

sidereal time

4

the point on the celestial sphere directly above an observer is called the

zenith

5

what was the first artificial satellite of Earth?

Sputnik 1

6

what was the first satellite launched by the US?

Explorer 1

7

what circle on the celestial sphere runs directly overhead and through the celestial poles?

meridian

8

the path the sun follows in a year

ecliptic

9

a device that splits light into a spectrum for analysis

spectroscope

10

what system of timekeeping divides the day into hours AM and PM?

12 hour time

11

the equation of time is the relationship between mean solar time and

apparent solar time

12

what term refers to an unmanned spacecraft launched specifically to explore the unknown?

space probe

13

what are the two points on the path of the sun at which the sun is farthest from the celestial equator?

solstices

14

in what type of orbit does a satellite stay above the same point on the Earth's surface?

geostationary orbit

15

which calendar system is now used in most nations?

Gregorian calendar

16

what term refers to the earth's slow "wobble" on its axis that causes the pole star to change?

precession of the equinoxes

17

what visible-light telescope was launched into space in 1990?

Hubble Space Telescope

18

what unit of time is based on the period Earth takes to orbit the sun once?

solar year

19

used to study the heavens

astronomical satellite

20

perform a variety of functions, such as making maps, forecasting crop production, spotting forest fires, and surveying cities

Earth observation satellite

21

relay telephone conversations and radio and television broadcasts

communications satellite

22

include the satellites of the Global Positioning System

navigational satellite

23

a telescope that uses a mirror as the objective is a _____ telescope

reflecting

24

the abbreviation A.D. stands for

anno Domini

25

the technique in which computer-controlled mirrors constantly flex and bend to correct for atmospheric distortion is

adaptive optics

26

when white light shines through a gas and then passes through a prism, the broad spectrum of color will show narrow, dark lines called

absorption lines

27

the mean solar time at Earth's prime meridian is called

UTC (coordinated universal time)

28

a circumpolar star that crosses the meridian between the visible celestial pole and the horizon is making a ____ transit.

lower

29

in which type of orbit does a satellite cross the equator at the same local mean solar time on every orbit?

sun-synchronous orbit

30

which type of orbit would a spacecraft use to increase its altitude?

Hohmann transfer orbit

31

from which calendar do the English month names come?

Julian

32

what was the first space station designed so that it could be expanded?

Mir

33

what astronomical event marks the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere?

December solstice

34

what US space program landed a man on the moon?

Apollo

35

At an altitude of 500 miles above the earth, a satellite with a speed of 16,700 mph will have a circular orbit. What describes the orbit of a satellite at an altitude of 500 miles and a speed of 17,100 mph?

the satellite will have an elliptical orbit with the lowest point at 500 miles and the highest point above 500 miles.

36

what rocket design did the US use to launch manned moon missions?

Saturn V

37

what term refers to the highest point of the orbit of an earth-orbiting satellite?

apogee

38

what part of a telescope collects the light?

objective

39

the term that refers to the speed a spacecraft must be traveling at to leave Earth's gravity without using its rockets anymore is

escape velocity

40

the unit of time, larger than a day, that is not based on the motion of a heavenly body

week

41

the first type of spacecraft designed to be reused was the

space shuttle

42

a rocket that can be stored for years with the fuel loaded is a _____ rocket

solid - fuel

43

scientists can use multiple radio telescopes to produce images more detailed than possible with a single radio telescope by using the technique called

interferometry

44

the two points at which the path of the sun crosses the celestial equator are called

equinoxes

45

the two basic kind of optical telescopes are

refracting & reflecting

46

first American in space

Alan Shepard

47

first woman in space

Valentina Tereshkova

48

Father of Modern Rocketry

Robert Goddard

49

first man in space

Yuri Gagarin

50

first American to orbit the earth

John Glenn

51

German-born engineer who became the US top rocket designer

Wernher von Braun

52

first man to set foot on the moon

Neil Armstrong

53

Explain why the Julian and Gregorian calendars have leap years and contrast how these calendars determine which years are leap years.

Leap years are needed because there is not a whole number of days in a solar year.
In the Julian calendar, every forth year is a leap year.
The Gregorian calendar's major difference from the Julian calendar is the elimination of leap years for all century years except those evenly divisible by 400.

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