Test 9, Chapters 7-9 Flashcards Preview

8th Science - Earth and Space > Test 9, Chapters 7-9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 9, Chapters 7-9 Deck (68):
1

An electron stream that jerkily travels from a cloud during a thunderstorm

stepped leader

2

what forms the brilliant flash of a lightning bolt

return stroke

3

drops of liquid water that have a diameter of less than 0.5 millimeter and fall from clouds to Earth

drizzle

4

atmospheric pressure at sea level is ___ pounds per square inch

14.7

5

measures high-altitude weather conditions

weather balloon

6

which type of front forms when two air masses push against each other but neither one advances?

stationary front

7

the change in the direction of winds caused by Earth's rotation is the ____ effect

Coriolis

8

which type of clouds are thunderstorm clouds?

cumulonimbus

9

what things affect insolation?

angle of sun's rays; cloud cover; length of daytime

10

a tropical cyclone with wind speeds of 74 mph or more

hurricane

11

a wind that reverses its direction from season to season

monsoon

12

the thunderstorm stage marked by the arrival of precipitation

mature

13

what is a large, rotating updraft in a supercell thunderstorm?

mesocyclone

14

when the relative humidity is 100%, the air is

saturated

15

the water that falls to the earth, including rain, sleet, hail, and snow, is

precipitation

16

what phenomenon occurs when an area receives an abnormally low amount of atmospheric water over a long period

drought

17

which air mas brings hot, dry weather?

continental tropical

18

what is water vapor in the air that touches the cooler ground and turns to a liquid?

dew

19

what are the factors that determine the earth's weather?

water vapor, heat energy, uneven distribution of heat energy

20

a tropical cyclone with wind speeds between 39 miles per hour and 74 miles per hour

tropical storm

21

a fierce, single-updraft thunderstorm

supercell

22

a narrow funnel of powerful, rapidly whirling wind that stretches from a cloud to the ground

tornado

23

the farthest distance at which objects can be distinguished

visibility

24

the elevated water level caused by a hurricane's winds

storm surge

25

the most intense type of downburst

microburst

26

the shock wave produced as lightening heats the air

thunder

27

the outermost layer of the atmosphere

exosphere

28

boundary between 2 air masses

front

29

most abundant gas in the homosphere

nitrogen

30

heat transfer by electromagnetic waves

radiation

31

which type of cloud is characteristically almond shaped

lenticular

32

which type of ultraviolet radiation is the least harmful

UVA

33

surface winds that blow from high-pressure regions toward the equator

trade winds

34

the convection cell that exists between the equator and latitude 30 degrees

Hadley cell

35

a thick, brownish haze that results from complex molecules released into the air by vehicles and some factories and plants

photochemical smog

36

the boundary formed when a cold air mass moves into the territory of a warm air mass

cold front

37

what is the coldest point in the atmosphere

mesopause

38

what is the movement of water from the earth's surface, into the air, and back to the surface?

water cycle

39

in clouds with temperatures above the freezing point, rain forms by the _________ process

collision-coalescence

40

the extremely powerful radiation that comes from deep space

cosmic rays

41

air flowing down a mountain's slope due to a differences in temperature and pressure

katabatic wind

42

a circulating spiral of wind around a low-pressure system

cyclone

43

tornadoes are classified using the Enhanced ____ scale

Fujita

44

hurricanes are ranked on the ____ Hurricane Wind scale

Saffir-Simpson

45

the rapidly swirling cloud that is the most distinctive visual feature of a tornado is a

condensation funnel

46

a single updraft system in a thunderstorm is a

cell

47

air that is warm near the ground but very cold at higher altitudes is (stable or unstable)

unstable

48

"lines of equal heat" are known as

isotherms

49

maps that give a summary of the weather conditions throughout the entire country at a single point in time are

surface weather charts

50

a tornado that forms over water is called a

waterspout

51

the center of a hurricane is the

eye wall

52

a weather instrument that simultaneously measures and transmits meteorological data from weather balloons to weather stations is a

radiosonde

53

measures relative humidity

hygrometer

54

measures air temperature

thermometer

55

measures atmospheric pressure

barometer

56

measures wind speed

anemometer

57

uses radio waves to detect objects and measure their distance

radar

58

measures the amount of precipitation

rain gauge

59

indicates the direction of the wind

weather vane

60

measures the distance from the ground to the base of clouds

ceilometer

61

a rotating column of air that starts on the ground and is not associated with a cloud

dust devil

62

limes of equal pressure on a weather map

isobars

63

a long line of advancing thunderstorms, usually moving ahead of a cold front

squall line

64

a concentrated downward blast of wind

downburst

65

a localized storm involving lightning, thunder, strong winds, and heavy rain

thunderstorm

66

the long, narrow lines of thunderstorms in a hurricane

rain bands

67

state of the atmosphere at a certain time and place

weather

68

an abrupt discharge of electricity through the air

lightning

Decks in 8th Science - Earth and Space Class (48):