Scientific Method - Midterm 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Scientific Method - Midterm 1 Deck (16):

Main purpose of scientific method?

Increase objectivity and rigor and to decrease personal bias


Elements fundamental to scientific inquiry?

1. Based on empirical evidence ( evidence through direct observation)
2. Evidence must be measurable
3. Evidence must be reproducible by everyone
4. Evidence must be shared in full and accurately (made available for observation by other scientists )
5. Work must be done solely for the purpose of arriving to truth


what do you do with results that do not support hypothesis?

You abandon it and revisit early parts of the process. you modify your hypothesis by performing more research


What makes a good questions?

1. Focused ( not multiple questions in one)
2. Has not already been answered
3. Not an unaswerable questions (doesnt involve variabls that cant be measured)


What makes a good hypothesis?

1. Statement not a question
2. Specific to where its either yes or no answer
3. it can be tested and does not involve variables that cant be measured
4. does not describe how you will plan to test it
5. can produce opposite results
6. Addresses facts you do know


True or false? Hypothesis has a number of variables tested

False, it limits the number of variables tested to a small number, preferably one


What is a variable?

Any factor in the experiment that can change
(duration, intensity, type, frequency)


What is independent variable?

Variable that is directly changed by you
ex: increase or decrease amount of water or fertilizer


Two types of independent variables

1. Continuously
2. Binary


What is a continuous variable?

one that can change in degrees
(temperature, time, amount of water


what is a binary variable?

variable thats either there or not/ on or off.
ex: Amount of water used


Dependent variable

one that might change as a result of a change in an independent variable. its the variable you measure
ex: after you change the amount of water, you measure the resulting height of bean plant


Controlled variables

the independent variables that are kept constant
Keeping temperature, amount of light, amount of fertilizer constant while only changing amount of water


What is a control?

Establishment that dependent variable does not change when the independent variable does not change.
Ex. check to see if bean plants grow just as tall when you dont increase water. if it grows tall, some other variable is affecting it


what is positive control?

Confirms that media and reagents are working properly, therefore any negative results is not due to bad reagents.


What is negative control?

establishes that the observed change (in color, pH, texture) only occurs in the presence of the particular physiological activity and not in its absence