MIDTERM 2 Fermentation and Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MIDTERM 2 Fermentation and Respiration Deck (64):
1

What does Growth Require?

Energy

2

How do microorganisms obtain energy?

By Breaking down food

3

What are examples of organic molecules and how/what does the microbe convert it?

1. Glucose, Amino Acids, Fatty acids
2. Microbes use catabolic pathways to convert biochemical energy into more usable form of ATP

4

What are the two key ways of releasing energy?

1. Respiration
2. Fermentation

5

What is the most efficient way to produce energy from a simple organic molecule?

Oxidative pathways of respiration

6

True or False: Oxidative respiration is anabolic. if false, explain why.

Its False because its actually Catabolic

7

What does Oxidative Respiration depend on?

It relies on the complete oxidation of organic compounds, most frequently in the presence of Oxygen, to releaase Hydrogen and the associated electrons.

8

What happens to the hydrogen and its associated electrons once it gets released by the organic compounds after being oxidized?

These hydrogens and electrons are transferred to the Dinucleotides NAD+ and FAD

9

What is the significance of NAD+ and FAD

They are coenzymes that ferry the electrons to the ETC

10

What happens to the terminal electron acceptor and the results of this step?

the terminal electron acceptor gets reduced resulting in the production of ATP through the production of a proton gradient and by oxidative phosphorylation

11

What makes glycolysis able to function in both aerobic and anaerobic organisms?

Its
1. A cytosolic pathway and
2. anaerobic

12

What does it mean to be anaerobic?

does not require oxygen

13

What are the net products of glycolysis?

1. Converts 1 Glucose --> 2 Pyruvates
2. Makes 2 ATP
3. Makes 2 NADH (through substrate level phosphorylation)

14

What happens if theres a terminal electron acceptor (oxygen) available around pyruvate?

The pyruvate gets converted to Acetyl-CoA and CO2 by oxidative decarboxylation and the Acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle.

15

What is the linking step between glycolysis and the TCA cycle?

The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA

16

What other product is produced when Pyruvate is converted to Acetyl-CoA

NADH

17

What pathways can the pyruvate produced by glycolysis enter?

either a
1. Respiratory pathway
2. Fermentative pathway

18

Requirements for pyruvate to enter the TCA cycle?

There must be oxygen ( or another terminal electron acceptor) so that the pyruvate can get converted into acetyl-CoA and then it may enter the TCA cycle combining with oxaloacetate

19

What happens in the TCA cycle?

its an 8 step process that
1. Oxidizes Acetyl-CoA to CO2
2. Reducing NAD+ to NADH and FADH to FADH2
3. Producing 1 ATP per acetyl-CoA (2 atp per glucose)

20

What happens to the reduced form of NADH and FADH2 as products of the TCA cycle?

The electrons are handed off to the ETC

21

How are electrons transferred from one complex to another?

Through a process of reduction and oxidation.

22

True or False, some Transmembrane complexes are proton pumps

True,

23

What does the proton pumps do?

they translocate H+ ions into the periplasmic space, Thus creating a proton gradient across the cell membrane

24

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

ATP synthase Using the proton gradient to produce ATP

25

What are the component enzymes of the ETC?

1. Dehydrogenases
2. Oxidases
3. Reductases

26

What do the component enzymes do?

1. some act as proton pumps
2. Mobile electron carriers (shuttling electrons between complexes)
3. Membrane Bound Electron carriers
4. Terminal electron oxidases or reductases

27

What can Cytochrome do?

They shuttle electrons between complexes

28

Where can cytochrome C be found in bacteria?

found on the periplasmic side of the cell membrane

29

How is the reduced end product formed in ETC?

Electrons are transferred from the last complex to the terminal electron acceptor and combined with H+ ions to produce a reduced end product

30

What is the end product of the ETC if the terminal electron acceptor is oxygen?

Water

31

What is the most common terminal electron acceptor?

Oxygen

32

What are other terminal acceptors microbes can use besides oxygen?

1. nitrate
2. Nitrite
3. sulfate
4.ferric ion

33

What is Aerobic respiration?

When respiration occurs in the presence of and using oxygen

34

What is anaerobic respiration?

using a terminal electron acceptor other than oxygen

35

True or False, Anaerobic respiration does not require all other parts of the respiratory metabolism including glycolysis, TCA cycle, and ETC.

False, they require it.

36

What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?

Anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic respiration and is often less able to support a high growth rate.

37

How much ATP does a single glucose molecule produce with all the steps of glycolysis, tca cycle, and etc combined?

38 ATP

38

Out of the four transmembrane complexes in ETC, which complex can be identified using a color indicator?

Complex III ( Heme-containing Catlytic protein cytochrome C)

39

What does a positive result for cytochrome C tell us?

it establishes the presence of the ETC, and by inference, the presence of the respiratory pathway

40

What is significance of superoxide?

the ETC is somewhat leaky in transferring electrons thus increasing the production of this free radical. Superoxide can damage cell membranes, proteins, and DNA.

41

True or False, SuperOxide is only present in microbes that uses oxygen and have an etc

True

42

What is a common protective mechanism that deals with superoxides?

Enzyme Catalse.

43

What are two possibilities for diagnostic testing based on the components and function of the ETC?

1. Cytochrome C Test
2. Catalse Test

44

True or False: Pyruvate produced at the end of glycolysis cannot be processed through the TCA cycles and the ETC

True

45

True or False: Glycolysis itself is dependent on the presence of oxygen.

False: Glycolysis is independent of oxygen,

46

How much ATP can glycolysis produce without oxygen?

2 net ATP molecules per glucose, it produces far less ATP per glucose molecule

47

What are the limitations of glycolysis?

the availability of NAD+.

48

Since Glycolysis is limited to NAD+, and if theres an absence of an ETC, what must happen

Reduction of pyruvate to lactate or alcohol through fermentation as an alternative method to generate NAD+

49

4 Main Characteristics of Fermentation

1. Oxygen is not required
2. Its Strictly fermentative
3. Fermentation is an inefficient method
4. Fermentation results in production of waste products

50

explain characteristic 1 of fermentation: Oxygen is not required

Since pyruvate does not undergo the transition reaction or enter the TCA cycle, NADH generation is entirely from glycolysis and NAD+ regeneration does not use the ETC but a simpler enzymatic reduction of pyruvate

51

explain characteristic 2 of fermentation: Its strictly fermentative

Strictly fermentative microbes have no need for an ETC and therefore lack it.
1. Facultative anaerobes that have both respiratory and fermentation pathways do not use the ETC when growing in anaerobic environments.
2. test for cytochrome C is likely to produce negative result in strict fermenter
3. may or may not produce positive result in an organism capable of both fermentation and respiration.

52

explain characteristic 3 of fermentation: Fermentation is an inefficient method

1. at end of fermentation process, most of biochemical energy is trapped in the reduced by product of pyruvate reduction, yielding only 2 atp molecules per glucose consumed. These products are then excreted out causing an energy loss in cells instead of being metabolized.
2. substrate phosphorylation limits number of atp molecules generated for each electron removed from glucose
3. organic compounds are used up rapidly and wastefully so that organisms may grow slowly or to a lower density than respiration

53

explain characteristic 4 of fermentation: Fermentation results in production of waste products

waste products are very characteristic of different organisms. therefore it can be used to identify a fermenting organism and distinguish among different strains.
2. Fermenting microbes differ in particular sugars they are able to ferment. therefore you can use this to distinguish among microbes

54

What three categories do fermentation products fall under?

1. Acid - lactic, acetic
2. Neutral products - ethanol, butanediol
3. gases - CO2 and Hydrogen

55

What are homolactic acid bacteria?

Produces primarily lactic acid

56

What are heterolactic acid bacteria?

they excrete ethanol, glycerol, and acetic acid as well as lactic acid

57

What are the 5 main categories microorganisms fall into based on growth in various oxygen conditions

1. Aerobe
2. strict anaerobes
3. facultative anaerobes
4. microaerophiles
5. aerotolerant anaerobes

58

What are aerobes

Grow only when oxygen is present

59

What are strict anaerobes

cannot grow at all in presence of oxygen

60

What are facultative anaerobes

grow with or without oxygen

61

What are microaerophiles?

require oxygen but are sensitive to high concentrations

62

What are aerotolerant anaerobes

anaerobes with some level of protection against oxygen and can grow in the presence of small amounts of oxygen without using it

63

What conditions satisfies an obligate aerobe?

1. must have respiratory pathway
2. highly likely to show both cytochrome C and catalase activity

64

What conditions satisfies an obligate anaerobe?

1. do not utilize aerobic respiration
2. would only have cytochrome C if they are utilizing anaerobic respiraiton
3. Presence of catalase is unlikely