Section 11: Stereotyping and Prejudice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 11: Stereotyping and Prejudice Deck (32):
1

Stereotyping =

beliefs and opinions about the characteristics and behaviors of people based on their group membership
Ex. Racial, gender, major, college
Negative or positive

2

Prejudice =

attitude directed towards people because they are members of a specific social group
Mainly negative bias – unfair feeling of dislike for a person or a group, feeling of like or dislike when not reasonable or logical

3

Explicit (overt/conscious):

do and have intentionally, aware of, believe in or willing to say

4

Implicit (covert/unconscious):

processes we do not do on purpose, unaware, not indorse attitude, not be willing to reveal, influenced by societal messages

5

Discrimination =

act of treating someone differently based on their group membership
Generally negative – more worse of treatment

6

Individual vs. institutionalized: discrimination =

class from professor vs. built into legal, political, or social institutions of a culture
Ex. Jobs, behaviors

7

Social categorization:

spontaneous classification of persons into groups of the basis of common attributes – can be visible or invisible (gender, race, age, social -class, sexual orientation)
-natural process without any thought – simplify information
-Errors from categorization: old members guided to new members making assumptions --> stereotyping

8

Research on “shooter bias”=

• Cultural stereotypes about Black men vs. White men
Black men = more violent and dangerous
- Results: when unarmed = shoot black more vs white – Fast to process to react to targets who are consistent with the stereotype

9

Ingroups favoritism vs outgroup derogation:

• In-groups – groups you identify with (women, classmate, CNA, etc.) vs. outgroups – not a part of (men, professor, Nurse, etc.)
• Resources: in-groups = spontaneously giving positive activity (like more – especially if stronger identified with)
groups are competitive – favor anger

10

• Minimal group research:

-divide people into meaningless groups develop attachments into groups quickly (class group projects)
• We like to belong to groups!

11

Outgroup Homogeneity effect:

tend to assume that members of outgroups are more similar than members of in-groups (in-groups = unique)
• Sharpening difference between, softening or minimize differences within
Ex. College students with a certain major think theirs is better or harder than the other groups

12

3 Factors that affect stereotyping:

• Need for Structure
• Moods and Emotions
• Cognitively taxing situations

13

Need for Structure

like their lives to be simple, well organized, and unexpected events, predictable – more likely to use stereotypes to make things simple

14

Moods and Emotions:

being in positive/good mood and want to stay in one = more likely to stereotype because less concerned with being accurate, bad mood = does not change outcome – limited cognitive resources (anger, fear, euphoria)

15

Cognitively taxing situations:

resources are limited = do not have time to think about complex situations, multi-task, or time pressure --> too tired

16

Intergroup competition:

Supporting and protecting one’s own group

17

Robber’s Cave Study (Sherif):

competition of groups = prejudice and stereotyping
-Group of young boys in state park: separated boys into 2 groups
Found: discovering outgroup and in countering with competitive situations = strong hostilities of feelings

18

Realistic conflict theory:

prejudice and conflict develop when there is competition or valuable but scarce resources between groups

19

Social dominance orientation (Sidanius and Pratto):

individual difference (high or low)
-extent to which someone wants their group to dominate and be superior to other groups
High = prefer social systems where groups are ranked according to work, power and wealth, negative stereotypes against lower ranks

20

Justifying and maintaining in-group advantages:

help down grade other groups
-stereotyping poor is lazy and irresponsible
-people deserve what they have

21

Social identity theory says:

Road to prejudice starts with our own self esteem
Self-esteem depends on two factors=
1. How we feel about ourselves
2. Social identities to which groups we belong

22

3 ways you can boost esteem

1. Think of things you are proud of –enhancing personal achievements
2. In-group members’ achievements
3. Derogating the outgroups

23

Derogation Reasoning:
Fein and Spencer-

complete a task and feedback about performance
IV1: ½ receives positive feedback, ½ receives negative
Results: when both positive = same outcome, negative feedback = more prejudice towards Jewish
Self-esteem: putting down Jewish student boosted self-esteem

24

5 ways we perpetuate stereotyping

1. Confirmation bias
2. Attribution biases
3. Situational
4. dispositional attributions
5. Subtyping

25

Confirmation bias:

tendency to seek and interpret information about outgroup members that verifies existing beliefs

26

Attribution biases:

make judgement off of behavior

27

Situational:

just the situation if no stereotype

28

dispositional attributions:

member of group/stereotype matching

29

Subtyping

process of characterizing a-typical group members into more specific sub-categories with in a social category, thereby leaving their category intact

30

Stereotype Threat:

fear of confirming other people’s negative stereotypes about your group

31

4 ways we reduce stereotyping and prejudice=

1. Common or superordinate goals
2. Equal status
3. Personal friendships
4. Support of authorities that favor or legitimize

32

Dasgupta and Rivera =

Exposing people to admired outgroup members effect for implicit but not explicit prejudice
-found that The contributors were rather supportive of legalizing gay and lesbian civil rights. Voting intentions were similar for items specific to lesbians and gay men.
-Short–term media exposure with long–term contact continued to have an effect on voting intentions. Attitudes did not change but behavior did.