Flashcards in Section 2: Person x Situation Deck (20):
What is the difference between motivation and goals?
Motivation: driving force or energy that moves people towards their goals
Goals: desired outcomes or in states that we want to achieve
What is willpower?
Self-control used to overcome counterproductive impulses to achieve difficult goals
Baumeister et. al.:
Hypothesis Limited resource
Procedure: Hungry participants in room that smells like cookies- two plates with cookies and radishes
1 IV Group was told to eat cookies and do task – 17min
2 Group was told to eat radishes and do task – 6min
3 Group was told to eat nothing (nothing on table) and do task – control –20min
Results: No solutions to puzzles, measured how long they waited/doing puzzle (DV)
Limited mental resource – tired
-Limited but helpful
how do Exemplars contribute to knowledge?
specific mental representation of an event or individual
mental representation of general characteristics of a group
activation of knowledge or goals making them ready for use
-form impressions, and how we should behave/expect
-Chronically assessable info – readily available
Favorable or unfavorable evaluations of people, events, objects, or ideas
Richer or more complex, go beyond liking or disliking, activate physiological arousal (Body awakens- increase in heart rate, release neurotransmitters, etc.)
Less focused then emotions, but last longer, influences everything that happens within a time period –role of culturally driven, genetically driven (ex. Encourage men to express anger or suppress anger)
How does culture influence our expression of mood?
Individualistic: emphasize standing out form other people, better than others, name is known
Collectivistic: get along with others, seeking harmony, be liked and be respected by others
“Rule of Thumb”: Western countries/cultures tend to be more individualistic, Eastern countries tend to be more collectivistic
How can the mere presence of others influence our behavior?
When the presence of other people makes us perform better than we do when alone on tasks that are easy to us, it may be reverse if the task is difficult to us- likely to do worse
-the role of experience
a person in a public situation thinks that the other person knows something that they do not know.. mask true thoughts or feelings to fit in group
Reality- everyone is feeling the same way, misperceiving the social norm
Ex. Asking questions in class, alcohol use on campus (party out of hand—thought no one else thought so)
Threats and opportunities
Ex. Grades = good or bad, negative or positive review at work, partner = love or lost
Accurate judges of affordances
See traits/personality through visuals (photos)
Unspoken rules that guide most people’s behavior in a given situation
perception of how people actually behave in a given situation –most used
Ex. “If Johnny jumped off a bridge, would you jump off too?”
behaviors that are approved of or disapproved of by others
Ex. “Will others like what I’m wearing or no?”
We rarely think of norms but unintentionally follow them, and rule other people out.
: order in which we expect things to happen (certain events) because of prescriptive norms
Ex. Romantic relationship: 1. Meet 2. Get to know each other 3. Dating 4. I love you 5. Engagement 6.Marriage 7. Children
Strong situations vs. weak scripted situations:
Ex. Wedding ceremonies (Scheduled time, place, everything), funerals, church services = strong situations
Ex. Weak = Going to a restaurant, going out with friends