Flashcards in Section 5: Attitudes and Persuasion Deck (19):
What 4 things do attitudes affect?
1. What we like and dislike
2. what types of groups we associate with or not (social identities)
3. affect opinions about social or political issues
4. and why we conform who we help and why we act aggressively
What IS an attitude?
favorable or unfavorable evaluation of a person, object, or idea
How do we form attitudes?
-Classical conditioning: Come to like people, objects, ideas that are repeatedly associated with things or people that we already like
Ex. Meeting someone new that your friend is friends with, or meeting someone new who that is friends with someone that we already do not like
-Operant condition: learn through Reward and punishment Ex. Cheering crowd impacts attitude
-Observation: observe what others do, we may gain those attitudes
How can we measure attitudes (be specific!)
-Self-report: asking someone directly Ex. opinion polls, job interviews, friend’s opinions
-Wording problems: in the way a question is asked, can influence how people answer Ex. Is Government spending too much money on the poor 23%? Or if too much on Welfare 53%? Same thing.
-Order effects: 1st question about religion, 2nd question about freedom of speech influence answers
-Social desirability bias: negative opinions about self that do not want to be expressed Ex. Sex, substance abuse, mental illness anonymous questionnaire
What is a priming task?
: reaction time captures how quickly people associate good vs bad things with particular people or objects –assume that an attitude is mental associated (most common)
When do attitudes predict behavior?
Attitude Strength: degree of conviction that people have about their attitudes
2.Linked to personal values
3.Issue is a concern to significant others
4.When attitude is acquired through direct experience
What two factors make strong attitudes unlikely to change?
1.Commitment: certainty that your attitude is correct
2.Embeddedness: referring to a strongly held attitude that has connected features (values, social identity, culture) of a person
What is the Theory of Planned Behavior? What four conditions must be present?
1.Attitude: Measured attitude toward a specific behavior of a question
2.Subjective norm: perception that important others will approve of the behavior Ex. Behavior inconsistent makes perception difficult to know
3.Perceived Behavioral control: perception of how difficult it would be to perform the behavior
4.(It based off the first three)Behavioral Intention: goal to act
All leads to Behavior
-lead to consistent behavior or inconsistent behavior depending on how strong it is
What if our attitudes and our behavior don’t match? What does cognitive dissonance theory say about this situation?
Cognitive Dissonance theory (Festinger): like to think of ourselves as distant people, tendency to feel uncomfortable
• 2 options:
o 1. Change our attitude to make consistent to behavior
o 2. Change behavior to match attitude
• The need to justify our actions
. What does the classic Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) study tell us about cognitive dissonance?
• Boring task: wooden peg board and turn peg for 30 minutes
• Ask participant to help out: effect of motivation, control group – motivation, experiment group – fun, exciting, tell next experimenter how fun it was
• Independent variable: amount of money offered, $1, $20, no money
• Dependent variable: how participant evaluated task to next experimenter
• Justifying behavior: subjects doing it for money with $20, $1 feels dissonance but feel motivation to reduce it and change attitudes, no money is not motivation and say that it sucks
-Dissonance produces attitude change only under specific conditions
Under what five conditions will dissonance produce attitude change?
• A: When behavior does not match attitude, it will lead to Negative consequences
• B: Cannot be justified due to big rewards or threats
• C: Behavior cannot be changed or withdrawn
• D: When person can foresee the consequences of their actions
• E: Person needs to understand the dissonance of that consistency
What is persuasion?
change in one’s private attitude or belief after receiving a message
. What does the Elaboration Likelihood Model say about persuasion? When is it likely to happen? When it is unlikely to happen?
• Central route vs. Peripheral route
-Central (Systematic Route/Processing): careful information processing, pay attention to facts, details, and quality of arguments – relevant info, arguments are high quality
-Peripheral (heuristic route/processing): superficial information processing, how message make feels like attractiveness, visibility – how long it is, how official it looks, how it makes us feel
. How does the amount of information affect whether or not we’re persuaded?
brief or long – know the audience
How do fear appeals affect whether or not we’re persuaded?
-making people afraid to motivate persuasion but only in certain situations if
1. Arguments are strong
2. Communication contains reassuring message
No solution = make audience feel helpless and block out message
. Do appeals to positive emotions work to persuade people? How or when? Why or why not?
increase persuasive power of message, feel good
2 reasons for superficial processing:
1.Mood maintenance: already good mood, so it makes it better
2.In good mood, more likely to do global thinking which means we see the big picture instead of just local
Should you use a one or two sided argument to persuade others?
Audience members who disagree: better for two sided communication, can persuade easier to show both arguments
What characteristics of the messenger help to persuade us or to not persuade us?
Most persuaded by people who are likeable, trustworthy, or experts, highly creditable