Flashcards in Section 10: Aggression Deck (21):
behavior intended to injure another person
4 types of aggression:
intended to hurt without face to face confrontation
face to face
hurtful behavior and feeling anger
hurting someone to accomplish a non-aggressive goal
Freud Instinct Theory: 2 opposing instincts =
1. death = desire to escape stressor through self destruction
2. life = to protect ourselves
Instinct theory unscientific why?
Cannot test instincts, not scientifically proven
How do evolutionary psychologists explain aggression?
survival of one's genes carried on
-survival of the fittestt
Why are evolutionary theories not a full explanation for aggression?
-It's a way to survive but there are other ways
-aggression might only happen if humans are responding to threats
-Aggression could be nurtured
How are hormones and aggression related?
Testosterone: increased test. leads to increased aggressiom
-dominant behavior, control status
Social Learning theory:
behavior is learned by observing others and through direct experience with rewards and punishments
Bandura, Ross, and Ross: role models
-The children who saw the aggressive role model played in a aggressive way
-Creativity with gun/tether ball
-Boys and girls = did not matter if on TV or not
Learning Performance distinction =
Just because you learn something does not mean you're going to do it = have to have motivation
How might Violent video games contribute to aggression
The more you play violent game/movies = higher chance of aggression
-Frustration-aggression theory (Dollard et al., 1939).
When people are unexpectedly frustrated when cannot/blocked achieve goal, they pursue aggression
3 limitations of the frustration-aggression theory:
1. -Frustration does not always produce aggression.
• No, not when obstacle that results in frustration is seen as justified, unintentional, or unavoidable.
2. • Not all aggression originate from frustration,
not instrumental aggression
3. • Catharsis does not always reduce motivation to aggress.
No, if aggressive intent remains, aggression can occur again.
Reformulated F-A Hypothesis
Berkowitz (1989, 1993):
Frustration is linked to emotional aggression, not instrumental
Excitation transfer theory
• Zillmann & Bryant (1984)
• ANY physiological arousal can cause aggression
• Arousal-affect model: experience negative emotion
• Depends on Intensity of physiological arousal and type of emotion one is experiencing
Personality and aggression
• Type A vs. Type B personality
• Type A at work: urgent and competitive, higher risk for heart disease, more conflicts in work place
• Conflicts with subordinates
• Less accommodating
• Drive more aggressively
• Road rage