Section 10: Aggression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 10: Aggression Deck (21):


behavior intended to injure another person


4 types of aggression:

1. indirect
2. direct
3. emotional
4. instrumental


indirect aggression=

intended to hurt without face to face confrontation


direct =

face to face



hurtful behavior and feeling anger


instrumental =

hurting someone to accomplish a non-aggressive goal


Freud Instinct Theory: 2 opposing instincts =

1. death = desire to escape stressor through self destruction
2. life = to protect ourselves


Instinct theory unscientific why?

Cannot test instincts, not scientifically proven


How do evolutionary psychologists explain aggression?

survival of one's genes carried on
-survival of the fittestt


Why are evolutionary theories not a full explanation for aggression?

-It's a way to survive but there are other ways
-aggression might only happen if humans are responding to threats
-Aggression could be nurtured


How are hormones and aggression related?

Testosterone: increased test. leads to increased aggressiom
-dominant behavior, control status


Social Learning theory:

behavior is learned by observing others and through direct experience with rewards and punishments


Bandura, Ross, and Ross: role models

-The children who saw the aggressive role model played in a aggressive way
-Creativity with gun/tether ball
-Boys and girls = did not matter if on TV or not


Learning Performance distinction =

Just because you learn something does not mean you're going to do it = have to have motivation


How might Violent video games contribute to aggression

The more you play violent game/movies = higher chance of aggression


-Frustration-aggression theory (Dollard et al., 1939).

When people are unexpectedly frustrated when cannot/blocked achieve goal, they pursue aggression


3 limitations of the frustration-aggression theory:

1. -Frustration does not always produce aggression.
• No, not when obstacle that results in frustration is seen as justified, unintentional, or unavoidable.

2. • Not all aggression originate from frustration,
not instrumental aggression

3. • Catharsis does not always reduce motivation to aggress.
No, if aggressive intent remains, aggression can occur again.


Reformulated F-A Hypothesis
Berkowitz (1989, 1993):

Frustration is linked to emotional aggression, not instrumental


Excitation transfer theory
• Zillmann & Bryant (1984)

• ANY physiological arousal can cause aggression
• Arousal-affect model: experience negative emotion
• Depends on Intensity of physiological arousal and type of emotion one is experiencing


Personality and aggression
• Type A vs. Type B personality

• Type A at work: urgent and competitive, higher risk for heart disease, more conflicts in work place
• Conflicts with subordinates
• Less accommodating
• Drive more aggressively
• Road rage


Cognitive neoassociation theory (Berkowitz, 1993):

• The role of the situation: any unpleasant experience leads to negative emotions, these emotions can activate aggressive thoughts if situation primes those thoughts Ex. Violent movies, porn
• Unpleasant experience  negative emotions
• Does the situation prime aggression? Yes
• Aggression activated + negative emotions = aggressive behavior more likely to happen