Flashcards in Session 11_Respiratory system regulation Deck (108)
normal respiratory rate and ryhthm
apneustic breathing =
prolonged inspirations (usually at end of life)
cessation of breathing
increase in ventilation (increase in DEPTH of breathing)
What are the 3 primary groups of neurons making up the brainstem respiratory center:
1. dorsal respiratory group (medulla oblongtoa) (DRG)
2. pneumotaxic center (pons) - pontine respiratory group (PRG)
3. ventral respiratory group (medulla oblongata) (VRG)
PRG has a ______________ stimulation effect on _______ and _______.
VRG and DRG
VRG ____________ stimulates ________________ muscles.
expiratory muscles (intercostals and others)
DRG has an ________________ stimulatory effect on ___________________________________.
Inspiratory muscles (external intercostals and the diaphragm)
The dorsal respiratory group controls _____________.
Neurons in the dorsal respiratory group lie in nucleus of the tractus ________________.
Neurons in the DRG receive sensory information from the __________ and ______________ nerves. Including signals from ____________________, _________________, and ___________________.
vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves
peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and types of receptors in the lungs.
Peripheral chemoreceptors =
choratid and aortic bodies
Which 3 nerves influence inspiration?
vagus, glossopharyngeal and facial
The __________ nerve has senssory vibers in the inner ear; when you clean your ear causes a ______________ sensation.
Breathing control centers are located in the:
pons and medulla
Nerve impulse from the _____________ relay changes in CO2 and O2 concentrations to the __________________.
FROM the HEART , TO the BRAINSTEM
Nerve impulses from the brainstem, trigger ________________ of muscles.
Where is the basic rhythm of respiration set?
primarily in the dorsal respiratory group
Actions potentials from the DRG "___________" and signal the inspiratory muscles (primarily the diaphragm) to contract.
From the DRG, signals travel along the ________________________ tracts in the spinal cord to the __________________ and intercostal nerves.
phrenic nerves and intercostal nerves
Why is "ramp-up" good?
eliminates jagged breath
- a slow and controlled/ even breath is desired
Signals stop suddenly for about ___________ seconds which stops stimulation the ___________________ to contract.
~ 3 seconds
Stopping the diaphragm from contracting provides time for:
Inspiratory ramp = shorter __________--> shorter ______________ --> increased rate
shorter inspiration --> shorter expiration --> increased rate
What are the 2 points of control of the inspiratory ramp:
1. rate of increase of the ramp signal
2. end of ramping
Ramp can occur ________ when needed for rapid breathing.
End of ramping provides limits to the _________________ - usual method for controlling rate of respiration.
time of inspiration
Pneumotaxic center is inhibitory or excitatory? It is a ______________ valve.
The pneumotaxic center signals the __________ to determine the "turn off" point of the inspiratory ramp; _________ inspiration.