Session 11_Respiratory system regulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 11_Respiratory system regulation Deck (108)
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1

Eupnea =

normal respiratory rate and ryhthm

2

apneustic breathing =

prolonged inspirations (usually at end of life)

3

Apnea =

cessation of breathing

4

Hyperpnea =

increase in ventilation (increase in DEPTH of breathing)

5

What are the 3 primary groups of neurons making up the brainstem respiratory center:

1. dorsal respiratory group (medulla oblongtoa) (DRG)
2. pneumotaxic center (pons) - pontine respiratory group (PRG)
3. ventral respiratory group (medulla oblongata) (VRG)

6

PRG has a ______________ stimulation effect on _______ and _______.

negative

VRG and DRG

7

VRG ____________ stimulates ________________ muscles.

positive

expiratory muscles (intercostals and others)

8

DRG has an ________________ stimulatory effect on ___________________________________.

positive

Inspiratory muscles (external intercostals and the diaphragm)

9

The dorsal respiratory group controls _____________.

inspiration

10

Neurons in the dorsal respiratory group lie in nucleus of the tractus ________________.

solitarius

11

Neurons in the DRG receive sensory information from the __________ and ______________ nerves. Including signals from ____________________, _________________, and ___________________.

vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves

peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and types of receptors in the lungs.

12

Peripheral chemoreceptors =

choratid and aortic bodies

13

Which 3 nerves influence inspiration?

vagus, glossopharyngeal and facial

14

The __________ nerve has senssory vibers in the inner ear; when you clean your ear causes a ______________ sensation.

vagus

coughing

15

Breathing control centers are located in the:

pons and medulla

16

Nerve impulse from the _____________ relay changes in CO2 and O2 concentrations to the __________________.

FROM the HEART , TO the BRAINSTEM

17

Nerve impulses from the brainstem, trigger ________________ of muscles.

contraction

18

Where is the basic rhythm of respiration set?

primarily in the dorsal respiratory group

19

Actions potentials from the DRG "___________" and signal the inspiratory muscles (primarily the diaphragm) to contract.

ramp up

20

From the DRG, signals travel along the ________________________ tracts in the spinal cord to the __________________ and intercostal nerves.

reticulospinal tracts

phrenic nerves and intercostal nerves

21

Why is "ramp-up" good?

eliminates jagged breath
- a slow and controlled/ even breath is desired

22

Signals stop suddenly for about ___________ seconds which stops stimulation the ___________________ to contract.

~ 3 seconds

diaphragm

23

Stopping the diaphragm from contracting provides time for:

passive recoil

24

Inspiratory ramp = shorter __________--> shorter ______________ --> increased rate

shorter inspiration --> shorter expiration --> increased rate

25

What are the 2 points of control of the inspiratory ramp:

1. rate of increase of the ramp signal
2. end of ramping

26

Ramp can occur ________ when needed for rapid breathing.

quickly

27

End of ramping provides limits to the _________________ - usual method for controlling rate of respiration.

time of inspiration

28

Pneumotaxic center is inhibitory or excitatory? It is a ______________ valve.

Inhibitory

"shut-off" valve

29

The pneumotaxic center signals the __________ to determine the "turn off" point of the inspiratory ramp; _________ inspiration.

DRG

limits

30

Strong pneumotaxic signal =

short lung filling time (inhibits DRG)