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1

What key components of CVP management of known?

- normal physiology
- cardiac
-pulmonary
-vacular

2

What key components of CVP management of applied?

-pathology
-disease progression
-pharmacology

3

What key components of CVP management of managed?

-primary and secondary prevention
-inpatient and outpatient

4

What is primary prevention?

directly addressing the disease

5

What is secondary prevention?

preventing further complications

6

threat to oxgyen transport =

threat to life

7

what are three steps of oxygen transport?

1. oxgyen delivery
2. oxygen consumption
3. oxygen extraction ratio

8

oxygen delivery DO2 =

arterial O2 x cardiac output

9

VO2 =

(arterial O2 - venous O2) x cardiac outpu

10

oxygen extraction ratio (OER) =

consumption / delivery

11

what is the utilization coefficient?

~23% at rest

12

What may cause VO2 to fall short of demant?

if severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction exists

13

what kind of biological work requires continuous oxygen supply?

aerobic metabolism

14

What is DO2 normally based on?

demands of tissues

15

At rest, DO2 is ______ greater than actual demand

3-4x

16

What does the 3-4x greater DO2 allow for?

creation of reserve

17

98% O2 transported in combination with _______________.

hemoglobin

18

What are determinants of hemoglobin's affinity for O2?

temperature and oxygen

19

What 3 structures are involved in oxgyen delivery / gas exchanges?

1. lungs
2. arteries
3. tissue cells

20

Balance b/n intravascular and _________________ fluid volume is important.

extravascular

21

If imbalance occurs, what happens?

electrolytes are impacted wich can impact oragn function

22

What can cause imbalances in the mechanism for delivery?

too much H20
not enougth H2O
too much Na+
not enougth Na+

23

What impacts delivery of oxygen from outside air to tissues?

1. atmospheric air
2. air quality
3. humidity

24

How does air quality interfere with repiratory tract filtering?

poor air quality leads to inflammation of alveolar capillary

25

In dry ENs:

loss of mucus covering, erosion and infection

26

In alveoli, inspired air saturated w/

water vapor

27

What are the first 3 steps of oxygens transport?

1. inpired oxygen and quality of air
2. airways
3. lungs & chest wall

28

What are steps 4-6 of oxygen transport?

4. diffusion
5. perfusion
6. myocardial function

29

What are steps 7-9 of oxygen transport?

7. peripheral circulation
8. tisue extraction & utilization of oxygen
9. return of partially (de)saturated blood & CO2 to lungs

30

what are the critical structures included in the airways?

upper respiratory: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx
lower respiratory: trachea, primary bronchi, lungs