Flashcards in General Deck (14)
What makes up oxygen delivery
arterial O2 x cardiac output = DO2
Oxygen Consumption (VO2) equals?
(arterial O2 - venous O2) x cardiac output
Oxygen extraction ration (OER) is equal to _____________?
consumption / delivery
What could cause VO2 to fall short of demand?
If severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction exists
(Issue b/c consumption is > intake
How many times greater is DO2 greater at rest compared to the actual demand?
(allows for a reserve to develop)
What normally determines the amount of DO2?
Normally based on demands of tissues
What percent of O2 is transported in combination with hemoglobin?
Blood is the mechanism for oxygen delivery. The balance between intravascular and extravascular fluid volume is important. If there is an imbalance what could occur?
Electrolytes becoming impacting; impacting organ function.
(Issues if there is too much/too little H2O or Na+)
What are the 9 steps in oxygen transport?
1. Inspired oxygen and quality of air
3. Lungs and Chest Wall
6. Myocardial function
7. Peripheral circulation
8. Tissue extraction and use of oxygen
9. Return of partially desaturated blood and CO2 to the lungs
What are 3 factors influence the quality of inspired oxygen and air?
1. Distribution of Nitrogen, O2 and CO2 in atmospheric air. (normal is 79% Nitrogen, 21% O2, and 0.03% CO2)
2. Air Quality
-poor air quality interferes with respiratory tract filtering
--> leads to inflammation of alveolar capillary
-In alveoli, inspired air saturated with water vapor
-Dry environments: loss of mucus covering erosion and infection
What is the main airway of the respiratory tract?
As the airways become smaller and branch throughout the lung tissue, they consist primarily of ________?
What are airways lined with?
1. cilia (fine, microscopic, hair-like projections responsible for wafting debris, cells, and microorganisms away from lungs into larger airways for removal).
2. mucus (2 layers, upper = gel layer and lower = sol layer)
These layers communicate with the cilia.