Session 12 - Neoplasia III Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 - Mechanisms of Disease > Session 12 - Neoplasia III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 12 - Neoplasia III Deck (33):

What is the TMN staging system?

T = Primary Tumour
N = Regional Lymph Node involvement
M = Metastasis


What does T1-T4 measure?

Increasing size in primary lesion, T1 - T4


What does N0 --> N3 measure?

No nodes --> Involvement of increasing no/range of nodes


What are M0 and M1?

M0 = No distant metastasis
M1 = presence of blood born metastases


How is increasing size in tumour measured?

T1 - T4


What is used to measure involvement of increase no/range of nodes?

N0 --> N3


Give TNM staging of breast staging in terms of T?

TIS – Carcinoma in situ
T1 - < 2cm
T2 – 2-5cm
T3 - > 5 cm
T4 – Through the chest wall/skin


Give regional lymph node involvement of breast cancer staging?

N0 – No nodal
N1 – Axillary
N2 – Mammary
N3 - Supraclavicular


Give metastasis staging for breast cancer?

M0 – No metastasis
M1 – Presence of metastasis


What is DUkes staging for colorectal cancer divided into?

A, B, C1/C2


What is A in dukes staging for colorectal carcinoma?

Confined to bowel wall
Not extending through muscularis propria
>90% 5 year survival


What is B in dukes staging?

Through bowel wall (Muscularis propria)
70% 5 year survival


What is C1/C2 staging for colorectal cancer?

Lymph nodes involved
30% 5 year survival
C1 = Regional Lymph nodes involved
C2 = Apical node (furthest away node) involved


Give staging of hodkins disease?

I – One lymph node involved
II – Two lymph nodes on one side of the diaphragm
III - > Two lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm
IV – Multiple foci (Bloody everywhere)


Define grading

Based on the degree of differentiation of tumour cells. Attempts to judge the extent to which tumour cells resemble or fail to resemble their normal counterparts.


What are grades 1-4?

Gx = Grade of differentiation cannot be assessed
G1 = Well differentiated
G2 = Moderately differentiated
G3 = Poorly differentiated
G4 = Undifferentiated


What is the grading system for breast cancer a measure of?

Scarff-Bloom-Richardson Grading system
Degree of tubule formation
Extent of nuclear variation
Number of mitoses


What are grades 1-3 for scarf bloom-richardson gradin? Survival rates at ten years

Grade 1 – 85% 10-year survival
Grade 2 – 60% 10-year survival
Grade 3 – 15% 10-year survival


What is the gleason grading system in prostate cancer?

based on the sum of two numbers: the first number is the grade of the most common tumor pattern, the second number is the highest grade cells found in the tumour


What is radiotherapy in cancer treatment?

External radiation to rumour at fractionated doses with shielding of adjacent normal tissues
Causes damage to DNA of rapidly dividing cells
If DNA damage is extensive  Apoptosis


In what cancers is radiotherapy
High, Fairly high, Moderate, Low

High -- Lymphoma, Leukaemia, Seminoma (Testicular)

Fairly High -- Squamous carcinomas

Moderate -- GI, Breast

Low -- Sarcoma


What does chemotherapy do?

Effect particular stages of the cell cycle and on rapidly dividing cells


Give three types of chemotherapy

Act on cells in G1/S and mitosis
Block cells entering cell cycle/act on mitosis
Acts on cells in S phase


Give two types of hormone therapy?



Describe tamoxifen?

Competes for binding to Oestrogen Receptor
50-80% of Breast Cancers express oestrogen receptors
Surgical (Orchidectomy)/clinical castration


Describe how herceptin is used

HER-2 Growth factor receptor
Overexpressed in 20-30% of breast carcinomas
Herceptin = Humanised monoclonal antibody
Side effects – Cardiac/pulmonary toxicity, can be fatal


How is prostate cancer treated?

Depends on androgens, depriving tumours of testosterone


What is a carcinoembryonic antigen?

Normally only found in embryonic tissue
Cancer expresses again, useful in seeing if any disease left over after treatment


How is human chorionic gonadotrophin used?

The evaluation of testicular masses
To indicate residual disease after Orchidectomy
In monitoring response to therapy and prediction of recurrence
Raised in nonseminomatous testicular tumours, especially when choriocarcinomatous elements present (high levels)
Seminomas with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells


Alpha-fetoprotein use?

Normally synthesised early in foetal life by yolk sac, foetal liver and foetal GIT.
Raised plasma levels associated with cancer of liver and yolk sac tumour of testis (nonseminomatous testicular tumours)


What is adjuvant treatment?

Given after surgical treatment of a primary tumour to eliminate subclinical disease


What is neoadjuvant treatment?

Given before main treatment


What does chemotherapy do,

Anti-metabolites mimic normal substrates involved in DNA replication
Alkylating and platinum cross link two strands of DNA helix
Anti-biotics - Bleomycin causes double stranded DNA breaks
Plant derived drugs - block micro tubule assembly and mitotic spindle formation