Flashcards in Session 9, 10, 11 - Self study Deck (41):
What is the most likely cause of a space occupying lesion of the brain?
What are the four most common cancers in women?
What must metastasis penetrate to reach the brain
What is a carcinoid tumour?
Slow growing neuroendocrine tumour
What is carcinoid syndrome?
Array of symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumour, notably serotonin. Hot flushes and diarrhea common symptoms.
Why is the lung a common site of metastasis?
High blood supply
Why would you get a DVT in pancreatic cancer
Increased production of clotting factors, change in blood constituents
Name and describe a mechanism via which a benign tumour could cause hypercalcaemia
Solitary parathyroid adenoma - Cyclin D expression, cyclin dependent kinase activated cause retinoblastoma protein deactivation which means unrestrained growth. Release PTH.
By what mechanism can malignant tumours cause hypercalcamia?
Ectopic secretion of PTHrp, which mimics actions of PTH
How can anaemia occur in cancer?
Decreased blood production (leaukaemia)
What is cachexia?
Severe weight loss, weakness and loss of appetite.
How is cachexia caused?
TNF - a - Produced by macrophages, induces fever, apoptosis, sepsis and cachexia
Increased lipolysis by tumour
Proteolysis inducing factor
Hormones involved in appetite
Increased energy expenditure
What cancers appeared first and second after hiroshima?
Leukaemia first, skin and lung cancer second
What oncogene is of relevance in the development of thryoid cancers following exposure to radiation
Ret oncogene (tyrosine kinase receptor) promotes cell proliferation when activated
What occured as a result of irridation of the spines of men with ankylosing spondylitis?
What are two explanations for the high incidence of cancer in areas surrounding power stations other than the power station itself?
What is the most important fact in determinng the prognosis of a melanoma?
Size of melanoma, deeper means more luymphatic drainage and spread
What are the 6 things to look for when assesing a mole?
What was the agent in soot which was responsible for the development in scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps?
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Give another occupational cause of cancer
Textile workers and aromatic amins
What are the two main carcinogenic substances in cigarette smoke?
Polycylcic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene
What is the mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have effect?
P450 hydroxylates it, making it soluble and more reactive
Damage DNA, playing a key role in mutagenesis
What effect does smoking have on bronchial epithelium?
Hyperplasia and metaplasia.
Ciliated columnar epithelial cells --> Squamous cell
What other tumurs are associated with cigarette smoking?
Breast, bladder and stomach
What are the clinical and pathological features of familial adenomatous polyposis?
Thousands of polyps on bowel wall
Higher risk of bowel cancer
What gene is involved in familial adenomatous polyposis?
Mutations in APC gene, autosomal dominant
What other genetic alterations have to occur for carcinoma to form?
Alterations in both tumour supressor genes and a proto-oncogene
How does hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer differ from familial adenomatous polyposis?
No polyps form, other cancers form other than colorectal
ovarian|, stomach|, pancreas|, pancreas
What kinds of cancers can be found in the testicles?
Germ cell tumours
What tumour marker would be reaised in testicular canceR?
Raised in non-seminomatous testicular tumours
How can tumour markers be helpful in assessing treatment?
Measure before and after surgical treatment to compare levels and assess if reccurence is occurin'
What type of cells are found in the lymph nodes in hodgkins lymphoma?
Reed stennenberg cells
What are B symptoms in cancer?
What three clinical signs are useful in the staging of breast cancer?
Size of tyumour, metastasis, lymph node involvement
How does tamoxifen work?
Competitively inhibits osetrogen receptors, reducing oestrogen dependent proliferation
What are the side effects of tamoxifen?
Can have an effect on endometrium causing bleeding
Give three causes of colorectal bleeding
Give three factors which help assess the differentiaition of a lesion
Number of mitoses
Describe dukes staging for the assesment of colorectal cancer
A - Invasion into but not through bowel
B - Invasion through bowel wall
C - Involves lymph nodes
D - Dustabt metastases
Give four factors which can cause raised PSA
- benign enlargement