Session 9, 10, 11 - Self study Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 - Mechanisms of Disease > Session 9, 10, 11 - Self study > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 9, 10, 11 - Self study Deck (41):
1

What is the most likely cause of a space occupying lesion of the brain?

Glioma

2

What are the four most common cancers in women?

Lung
Colon
Melanoma
Breast

3

What must metastasis penetrate to reach the brain

BBB

4

What is a carcinoid tumour?

Slow growing neuroendocrine tumour

5

What is carcinoid syndrome?

Array of symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumour, notably serotonin. Hot flushes and diarrhea common symptoms.

6

Why is the lung a common site of metastasis?

High blood supply

7

Why would you get a DVT in pancreatic cancer

Increased production of clotting factors, change in blood constituents

8

Name and describe a mechanism via which a benign tumour could cause hypercalcaemia

Solitary parathyroid adenoma - Cyclin D expression, cyclin dependent kinase activated cause retinoblastoma protein deactivation which means unrestrained growth. Release PTH.

9

By what mechanism can malignant tumours cause hypercalcamia?

Ectopic secretion of PTHrp, which mimics actions of PTH

10

How can anaemia occur in cancer?

Haemolysis inudced
Blood loss
Decreased blood production (leaukaemia)

11

What is cachexia?

Severe weight loss, weakness and loss of appetite.

12

How is cachexia caused?

TNF - a - Produced by macrophages, induces fever, apoptosis, sepsis and cachexia
Increased lipolysis by tumour
Proteolysis inducing factor
Hormones involved in appetite
Increased energy expenditure

13

What cancers appeared first and second after hiroshima?

Leukaemia first, skin and lung cancer second

14

What oncogene is of relevance in the development of thryoid cancers following exposure to radiation
?

Ret oncogene (tyrosine kinase receptor) promotes cell proliferation when activated

15

What occured as a result of irridation of the spines of men with ankylosing spondylitis?

Leukaemia

16

What are two explanations for the high incidence of cancer in areas surrounding power stations other than the power station itself?

Radion gas
Familial clustering

17

What is the most important fact in determinng the prognosis of a melanoma?

Size of melanoma, deeper means more luymphatic drainage and spread

18

What are the 6 things to look for when assesing a mole?

Assymetry
Border irregularity
Colour change
Ddepth
Elevation

19

What was the agent in soot which was responsible for the development in scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

20

Give another occupational cause of cancer

Textile workers and aromatic amins

21

What are the two main carcinogenic substances in cigarette smoke?

Polycylcic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene

22

What is the mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have effect?

P450 hydroxylates it, making it soluble and more reactive
Damage DNA, playing a key role in mutagenesis

23

What effect does smoking have on bronchial epithelium?

Hyperplasia and metaplasia.
Ciliated columnar epithelial cells --> Squamous cell

24

What other tumurs are associated with cigarette smoking?

Breast, bladder and stomach

25

What are the clinical and pathological features of familial adenomatous polyposis?

Thousands of polyps on bowel wall
Higher risk of bowel cancer

26

What gene is involved in familial adenomatous polyposis?

Mutations in APC gene, autosomal dominant

27

What other genetic alterations have to occur for carcinoma to form?

Alterations in both tumour supressor genes and a proto-oncogene

28

How does hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer differ from familial adenomatous polyposis?

No polyps form, other cancers form other than colorectal
ovarian|, stomach|, pancreas|, pancreas

29

What kinds of cancers can be found in the testicles?

Germ cell tumours
Lymphomas

30

What tumour marker would be reaised in testicular canceR?

HCG
Raised in non-seminomatous testicular tumours

31

How can tumour markers be helpful in assessing treatment?

Measure before and after surgical treatment to compare levels and assess if reccurence is occurin'

32

What type of cells are found in the lymph nodes in hodgkins lymphoma?

Eosinophils
Reed stennenberg cells

33

What are B symptoms in cancer?

Fever
Night sweats
Weight loss

34

What three clinical signs are useful in the staging of breast cancer?

Size of tyumour, metastasis, lymph node involvement

35

How does tamoxifen work?

Competitively inhibits osetrogen receptors, reducing oestrogen dependent proliferation

36

What are the side effects of tamoxifen?

Can have an effect on endometrium causing bleeding

37

Give three causes of colorectal bleeding

Cancer
Haemrrhoids
Ulcerative colitis

38

Give three factors which help assess the differentiaition of a lesion

Pleomorphism
Number of mitoses
Gland formation

39

Describe dukes staging for the assesment of colorectal cancer

A - Invasion into but not through bowel
B - Invasion through bowel wall
C - Involves lymph nodes
D - Dustabt metastases

40

Give four factors which can cause raised PSA

Prostate
-Neoplasia
- inflammation
- benign enlargement

41

What is the value of cervical screening?

Can see dysplasia before symptoms occura nd treat or take preventative measures