Session 9 - Neoplasia I Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 - Mechanisms of Disease > Session 9 - Neoplasia I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 9 - Neoplasia I Deck (58):
1

Define benign neoplasia

An abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed

2

Define malignant neoplasia

an abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed AND invades surrounding tissue with potential to spread to distant sites

3

Describe a benign neoplasia

Benign tumours grow in a confined local area and so have a pushing outer margin. Remains at site of origin.

4

Describe malignant neoplasia

Malignant tumours have an irregular outer margin and shape and may show areas of necrosis and ulceration. May spread to distant site forming new non-contiguous secondary growth (Metastasis).

5

What is a tumour?

A tumour is any clinically detectable lump or swelling

6

What is a cancer?

A malignant neoplasm

7

What is metastasis?

malignant neoplasm that has spread from its original site to a new non-contiguous site

8

What is the original location of a cancer called?

The original location is the primarysite and the place to which it has spread is a secondary site

9

What is dysplasia?

Dysplasia is a pre-neoplastic alteration in which cells show disordered tissue organisation. It is not neoplastic because the change is reversible.

Also indicated level of differentiation.

10

How differentiated are the cells of an
a) benign neoplasm
b) malignant neoplasm

a) Well differentiated
b) Well to poorly differentiated

11

What is anaplastic?

Cells with no resemblance to any tissue

12

What happens with worsening differentiation?

Individual cells have increasing nuclear size and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratior, more mitotic figures and increasing variation in size and shape.

13

What is Pleomorphism?

Variation in size and shape of cells and nuclei

14

What are a group of cells with no resemblance to any tissue called?

Anaplastic

15

What does the term "grade" indicate?

The level of differentiation, highly graded being poorly differentiated

16

How is dysplasia used as a measure of altered differentiation?

Mild, Moderate and Severe dysplasi idicates worsening differentiation

17

What two things apparently cause neoplasia?

Initiators and promoters

18

For a neoplasm to develop, what must a mutation do?

The change must cause an alteration in cell growth and behaviour, and the change must be not lethal and passed onto daughter cells.

19

What are initiators?

Mutagenic agents

20

What are promoters?

Things that cause cell proliferation

21

What genes can mutation occur in to cause neoplasia?

Proto-oncogenes OR Tumour Suppressor Genes

22

What happens if a mutation permanently activates a proto oncogene

it becomes an oncogene and neoplasia will occur

23

How does a tumour supressor gene cause neoplasia?

Must be permenantly inactivated

24

What are six key differences between neoplastic cells and normal cells?

Sandy Beache's Rectum Gets Invaded Regularly

- Self sufficient growth signals
HER2 gene amplification
- Resistance to anti-growth signals
CDKN2A gene deletion
- Grow indefinitely
Telomerase gene activation
- Induce new blood vessels
Activation of VEGF expression
- Resistance to apoptosis
BCL2 gene translocation
- Invade and produce metastases
Altered E-cadherin expression

25

Describe the clonality of neoplasms

Neoplasms are monoclonal. They are a cell population that are descended from a common ancestral cell

26

Describe a benign tumor

Variation in size and shape (Pleomorphism) minimal
Low mitotic count. Mitoses have normal form.
Retention of tissue specialisation
(Well differentiated)

27

Desribe a malignant tumour

Variation in size and shape (Pleomorphism) minimal to marked
Low to high mitotic count. Mitoses may have abnormal forms.
Variable loss of tissue specialisation
(Well to poorly differentiated)

28

What is the differnece between in situa and malignancy?

All of the features of a malignant neoplasm in an epithelium, but no invasion through the basement membrane.

29

Name three initiators

Chemicals, infections, and radiation

30

Describe how neoplasms can be named

1.Benign or malignant
2.By tissue type
Epithelial
Connective tissue
Lymphoid/haematopoietic
Germ cell

31

What do benign neoplasms end in?

-Oma

32

What do malignant epithelial neoplams end in

-carcinoma

33

What do malignant non epithelial neoplasms end in

-sarcome

34

What two states can a carcinoma be in?

In situ (no invasion of basement membrane) or invasive

35

What is a leukaemia?

a malignant neoplasm of blood-forming cells arising in the bone marrow

36

What is a lymphoma?

Malignant neoplasms of lymphocytes mainly affecting lymph nodes

37

What is a germ cell neoplasm?

Arise from pluripotent cells mainly in testis or ovary

38

What is a neuroendocrine tumour?

Arise from cells distributed throughout the body

39

What are blastomas?

Occur mainly in children and are formed from immature precursor cells

40

Give three places where benign epithelial neoplasms can occur

Stratified squamous
Transitional
Glandular

41

What is a stratified squamous neoplasm called?

quamous papilloma
Any tumour with finger-like projections

42

What is a transitional neoplasm called?

Transitional cell papilloma

43

What is a glandular neoplasm called?

Adenoma

44

Name four malignant carcinomas and where they may occur

Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Skin, larynx, oesophagus
Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Bladder, ureters
Adenocarcinoma
Stomach, colon, lung, prostate, breast, pancreas
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Skin

45

What is a benign and malignant tumour of smooth muscle called

Leiomyoma
Leiomyosarcoma

46

What is a benign and malignant tumour of Fibrous tissue

Fibroma
Fibrosarcoma

47

What is a benign and malignant tumour of bone

Osteoma
Osteosarcoma

48

What is a benign and malignant tumour of cartilage

Chondroma
Chondrosarcoma

49

What is a benign and malignant tumour of fat called

Lipoma
Liposarcoma
o

50

What is a benign and malignant tumour of nerves called

Neurofibroma
Neurofibrosarcoma

51

What is a benign and malignant tumour of nerve sheath called

Neurilemmoma
Neurilemmosarcoma

52

What is a benign and malignant tumour of glial cells

Glioma
Malignant Glioma

53

What is a myeloma?

Malignant plasma cell neoplasm in bone marrow, destroying adjacent bone

54

Why are all lymphomas considered malignant?

Already in blood

55

Describe lymphomas, and give two leukaemia names

Occurxs in lymphoid tissue
Usually lymph nodes
Hodgkins Disease and Non Hodgkins lymphoma

56

What is a haematopoietic tumour?

Acute and Chronic Leukaemia
Occurs in bone marrow
Abnormal cells then enter the blood

57

Name two germ cell neoplasms of the testis

Malignant Teratoma
Seminoma

58

Name an ovarian germ cell neoplasm

Benign Teratoma