Session 3 - Chronic inflammation Flashcards Preview

Semester 2 - Mechanisms of Disease > Session 3 - Chronic inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 3 - Chronic inflammation Deck (47):
1

What is the definition of chronic inflammation?

Definition: chronic response to injury with associated fibrosis; may overlap with host immunity

2

What are macrophages derived from?

monocytes

3

What is the role of lymphocytes?

Chronic inflammatory cells

4

What are the three functions of lymphocytes?

o Adaptive immune response

o B lymphocytes > antibodies

o T lymphocytes > control & cytotoxic functions

5

What are plasma cells derived from?

Terminally differentiated B lymphocytes

6

What do plasma cells imply?

Chronic inflammation

7

What do plasma cells do?

Synthesis and secrete antibodies

8

What do plasma cells look like?

o Clock face chromatin
o Pale around nucleus – lots of golgi

9

What reactions are Eosinophills involved in?

* Allergic reactions, parasitic infections, some tumours

10

What do eosinophils look like?

* Appearance: “sunburtn face with sunglasses”`

11

What are fibroblasts recruited by?

Macrophages

12

What pathology underlies scarring?

Fibrosis

13

How do giant cells appear?

Multinucleated and via the fusion of macrophages

14

What is are the roles of macrophages?

- Phagocytosis of non-pyogenic debris and bacteria
- Anti-gen presentation
- Synthesis of cytokines, complement factors, blood clotting factors and proteases
- Control of other cells via cytokine release

15

What do macrophages fuse together to form?

o Langhans – TB – horse shoe shaped
o Foreign body type – disorganized
o Touton – fat necrosis

16

When might chronic inflammation arise?

- May take over from acute inflammation if damage too severe
- May occur De Novo

17

How does chronic inflammation occur de novo? (4)

* Autoimmune disease e.g. rheumatoid arthritis
* Chronic infections e.g. viral hepatitis
* Chronic low level irritation e.g. suture (considered a foreign body)
* May develop alongside acute inflammation e.g. if severe/repeated inflammation

18

Give five complications of chronic inflammation

* Fibrosis (scarring) e.g. cirrhosis of the liver
* Impaired function e.g. chronic inflammatory bowel disease > diarrhoea
* Increased function (rare) e.g. thyrotoxicosis
* Atropy e.g. autoimmune destruction of adrenal glands/ gastric mucosa
* Stimulated immune responsep

19

What is chronic cholecystitis and how is it caused?

Give a treatment

* Repeated obstruction, of cystic duct of gall bladder by gallstones > ischaemia
* Repeated acute inflammation > chronic inflammation
* Fibrosis of bladder wall
* Treated with surgicalremoval

20

What is gastric ulceration and how is it caused?

- Acute gastritis (alcohol, drugs)
- Helicobacter pylori > chronic gastric ulceration

* Occurs due to imbalance between acid production and mucosal defence

* Fibrosis of stomach mucosa

21

Give two types of inflammatory bowel disease

Ulcerative colitis
Chron's disease

22

What is ulcerative colitis?
Give two treatments

o Superficial
o Diarrhoea > dehydration > malnutrition
o Bleeding
- Treat with immunosupression, surgical removal of the large bowel

23

What is crohn's disease?
Give three treatments

o Transmural
o Strictures
o Fistulae: connections between two eipthelia

- Treat with lifestyle modifications, diet/hydration, immunosupression

24

What is inflammatory bowel disease?
Give two symptoms

* Infllammatory disease affecting the large and small bowel.
Present with diarrhea, rectal bleeding and other symptoms

25

What are common causes of cirrhosis?

Alcohol, infection (Hep B, HIV), immunological, fatty liver disease

26

What is cirrhosis?

Chronic inflammation with fibrosis and impaired function

27

What is fibrosis?

* Fibrosis > disorganization of architecture and attempted regeneration

28

What is thyrotoxicosis?

* Grave’s disease

* Increased function

29

What is a granuloma?

Granuloma: aggregate of macrophages which arise from persistent, low-grade antigenic stimulation and hypersensitivity.

30

What are tuberculosis and leprosy?

Caused by mycobacterium

31

What is not produced by myobacterium?

Toxins or lytic enzymes

32

How do tuberculosis and leprosy cause disease?

o Cause disease by persistence and induction of cell-mediated immunity

33

When are tuberculous granulomas present?

Caseous necrosis

34

What is sarcoidosis?

o Abnormal collections of granulomas in organs
o Non-caseous granulomas in lungs, lymph nodes…

35

Give four causes of granulomas

* Sarcoidosis
* Myobacterium (Tuberculosis and leprosy)
*Syphilis
*Foreign body reactions

36

What is polymyositis?

Chronic inflammation of the muscles
Patient has dificulty swallowing and muscle pain. Muscle weakness also present.

Main treatment is corticosteroids

37

What is a treatment for helicobacter pylori?

PPI inhibitor
Antibiotics

38

What is a treatment for liver cirrhosis?

Lifestyle changes to prevent further damage and a transplantation of a new liver if necessary

39

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

Autoimmune disease
Localised and systemic immune response
Localised chronic inflammation leads to joint destruction
Systemic immune response

40

When do chronic inflammation and immune responses overlap?

-Immune diseases cause pathology by chronic inflammation
- Chronic inflammatory processes can stimulate immune response

41

What are the outcomes of tuberculosis?

Arrest, fibrosis, scarring
Erosion into bronchus
Tuberculous empyema (collection of pus)
Erosion into bloodstream

42

What is polymyositis?
What are its symptoms? (3)
What is the main treatment?

Chronic inflammation of the muscles
Patient has dificulty swallowing and muscle pain. Muscle weakness also present.

Main treatment is corticosteroids

43

What is a treatment for helicobacter pylori? (2)

PPI inhibitor
Antibiotics

44

What is a treatment for liver cirrhosis?

Lifestyle changes to prevent further damage and a transplantation of a new liver if necessary

45

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

Autoimmune disease
Localised and systemic immune response
Localised chronic inflammation leads to joint destruction

46

When do chronic inflammation and immune responses overlap?

-Immune diseases cause pathology by chronic inflammation
- Chronic inflammatory processes can stimulate immune response

47

What are the outcomes of tuberculosis?

Arrest, fibrosis, scarring
Erosion into bronchus
Tuberculous empyema (collection of pus)
Erosion into bloodstream