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Flashcards in Session 3 - Health inequalities Deck (16)
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1

What is meant by social patterning of health in the UK?

-Variations between regions of the UK based on differences in socioeconomic class
eg lower socioeconomic class correlates to lower life expectancy and poorer health status

2

According the the black report by DoH, state the 4 reasons for health inequality (and an additional 2 not in the black report)

-Artefact
-Social selection
-Behavioral-cultural
-Materialistic
(Psychosocial and income distribution)

3

What is the artefect explanation of health inequality?

-Health inequalities evident from the way statistics were collected due to cocerns over quality and method
-Most discredited explanation

4

What is the social selection explanation of health inequality?

-Direction of causation is from health to social status not the otherway around ie sick individuals move down the social hierachy and healthy move up
-Chronically disabled are more likely to be disadvantaged

5

What are the criticisms of the social selection explanation of health inequality?

-It is plausible but only a minor contribution to health inequality

6

What is the behavioural-cultural explanation of health inequality?

-ill health is due to peoples choices, decisions, knowledge and goals
-Those from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to engage in health damaging behaviours and vice versa

7

What are the limitations to the behavioural-cultural explanation of health inequalities?

-Behaviours are outcomes of social processes not simply choice
-'Choices' difficult to exercise in adverse conditions

8

What is the materialise explanation of health inequality?

-The most plausible explanation
-Inequalties arise from differential access to material resources eg low income, unemployment, work environment,
-Lack of choice in exposure to hazards adverse conditions eg poor housing
-Accumulation of factors

9

What is the psychosocial explanation of health inequality?

-Stress impact on health
-Act in addition to materialist explanation

10

What is the income distribution explanation of health inequality?

-Relative income affects health
-Contries with greater income inequalities have greater health inequalities
(egalitarian societies have least health inequalities)

11

What is inequity?

-Inequalities between healthcare which are unfair and avoidable

12

Which areas have the highest rates of GP and emergency services vs preventative and specialist services?

-Most deprived areas

13

Why may deprived areas have a decreased utilisation of healthcare?

-Normalise ill-health
-Tendancy to manage health as a series of crises
-Lack of cultural alignment between health services and socioeconomic services

14

How is access to healthcare measured? Why is thie problematic?

-Through utilisation
-Do not know anything about those people who are not/cant access healthcare

15

How can ethnicity contribute to health inequalities?

-Culture can influence ways of doing /being
-Access to/exclusion from services and resources
-Genetic/biological factors

16

How does gender influence health inequalities?

-Males have higher mortality rates and more rates of suicide and violent deaths
-Females have a higher life expectancy, higher reported mental health issures and higher rates of disability and longstanding illness