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What is meant by social patterning of health in the UK?

-Variations between regions of the UK based on differences in socioeconomic class
eg lower socioeconomic class correlates to lower life expectancy and poorer health status


According the the black report by DoH, state the 4 reasons for health inequality (and an additional 2 not in the black report)

-Social selection
(Psychosocial and income distribution)


What is the artefect explanation of health inequality?

-Health inequalities evident from the way statistics were collected due to cocerns over quality and method
-Most discredited explanation


What is the social selection explanation of health inequality?

-Direction of causation is from health to social status not the otherway around ie sick individuals move down the social hierachy and healthy move up
-Chronically disabled are more likely to be disadvantaged


What are the criticisms of the social selection explanation of health inequality?

-It is plausible but only a minor contribution to health inequality


What is the behavioural-cultural explanation of health inequality?

-ill health is due to peoples choices, decisions, knowledge and goals
-Those from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to engage in health damaging behaviours and vice versa


What are the limitations to the behavioural-cultural explanation of health inequalities?

-Behaviours are outcomes of social processes not simply choice
-'Choices' difficult to exercise in adverse conditions


What is the materialise explanation of health inequality?

-The most plausible explanation
-Inequalties arise from differential access to material resources eg low income, unemployment, work environment,
-Lack of choice in exposure to hazards adverse conditions eg poor housing
-Accumulation of factors


What is the psychosocial explanation of health inequality?

-Stress impact on health
-Act in addition to materialist explanation


What is the income distribution explanation of health inequality?

-Relative income affects health
-Contries with greater income inequalities have greater health inequalities
(egalitarian societies have least health inequalities)


What is inequity?

-Inequalities between healthcare which are unfair and avoidable


Which areas have the highest rates of GP and emergency services vs preventative and specialist services?

-Most deprived areas


Why may deprived areas have a decreased utilisation of healthcare?

-Normalise ill-health
-Tendancy to manage health as a series of crises
-Lack of cultural alignment between health services and socioeconomic services


How is access to healthcare measured? Why is thie problematic?

-Through utilisation
-Do not know anything about those people who are not/cant access healthcare


How can ethnicity contribute to health inequalities?

-Culture can influence ways of doing /being
-Access to/exclusion from services and resources
-Genetic/biological factors


How does gender influence health inequalities?

-Males have higher mortality rates and more rates of suicide and violent deaths
-Females have a higher life expectancy, higher reported mental health issures and higher rates of disability and longstanding illness