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Flashcards in Session 4.1 - health promotion Deck (16)
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What is the aim of health promotion?

-To enable people to increase control over and improve their health


What are the 5 approaches to health promotion?

-Medical/prevantative measures
-Behavioural change
-Social change


What is primary prevention? Give an example

-Aims to prevent the onset of disease or injury by reducing exposure to risk factor
eg immunisation, reducing poor health behaviours eg smoking


What is secondary pevention? Give an example

-Detects or treats a disease (or risk factor) at an early stage to prevent progression or disability
eg screening and monitoring


What is tertiary prevention? Give an example

-Minimises the effects of established disease
eg rehab programmes


State 6 dilemmas of health promotion

-Victim blaming
-Fallacy of empowerment
-Reinforcing negative stereotypes
-Unequal distribution of responsibility
-Prevention paradox


What is the ethical dilemma of health promotion?

-Ethics of interfering in peoples lives
-Potential psychological impact of health promotion messages eg anxiety
-Nanny state -> overprotectibe or interfering with personal choice


What is the victim blaming dilemma of health promotion?

-Constraints in which people live are not recognised
-Downplays the impact of wider socioeconomic and envronmental determinants of health eg housing conditions by focussing on individuals


What is the fallacy of empowerment dilemma of health promotion?

-Giving people information does not give them power
-Unhealthy lifestyles not due to ignorance but incontrollable determinants of health


What is the Reinforcing negative stereotypes dilemma of health promotion?

-Targets specific groups which can reinforce negative stereotypes eg leaflets for HIV prevention in drug users


What is the unequal distribution of responsibility dilemma of health promotion?

-Implementing healthy behaviours in the family often left up to the woman eg change4life


What is the prevention paradox dilemma of health promotion?

-Interventions which can effect at a population level may not effect an individual
Eg people may not see themselves as a candidate for disease and thus health message ignored


Why is there an ethical obligation to evaluate health promotion?

-To ensure no harm is being done


What 3 types of evaluation occur after health promotion?

-Process evaluation -> assess process of implementation
-Impact evaluation -> assess immediate effect
-Outcome evaluation -> measures long-term consequences


Why can the timing of health promotion evaluation effect the outcome?

-Delay -> effect may take a long time to become apparent
-Decay -> effects of a promotion may wear off quickly


Why can health promotion be difficult to evaluate?

-Lagtime of outcome
-Confounding factors of outcome -> if person is undertaking this health behaviour then more likely doing others too
-Intervention designs can be difficult to evaluate