Flashcards in Session 4.1 - health promotion Deck (16)
What is the aim of health promotion?
-To enable people to increase control over and improve their health
What are the 5 approaches to health promotion?
What is primary prevention? Give an example
-Aims to prevent the onset of disease or injury by reducing exposure to risk factor
eg immunisation, reducing poor health behaviours eg smoking
What is secondary pevention? Give an example
-Detects or treats a disease (or risk factor) at an early stage to prevent progression or disability
eg screening and monitoring
What is tertiary prevention? Give an example
-Minimises the effects of established disease
eg rehab programmes
State 6 dilemmas of health promotion
-Fallacy of empowerment
-Reinforcing negative stereotypes
-Unequal distribution of responsibility
What is the ethical dilemma of health promotion?
-Ethics of interfering in peoples lives
-Potential psychological impact of health promotion messages eg anxiety
-Nanny state -> overprotectibe or interfering with personal choice
What is the victim blaming dilemma of health promotion?
-Constraints in which people live are not recognised
-Downplays the impact of wider socioeconomic and envronmental determinants of health eg housing conditions by focussing on individuals
What is the fallacy of empowerment dilemma of health promotion?
-Giving people information does not give them power
-Unhealthy lifestyles not due to ignorance but incontrollable determinants of health
What is the Reinforcing negative stereotypes dilemma of health promotion?
-Targets specific groups which can reinforce negative stereotypes eg leaflets for HIV prevention in drug users
What is the unequal distribution of responsibility dilemma of health promotion?
-Implementing healthy behaviours in the family often left up to the woman eg change4life
What is the prevention paradox dilemma of health promotion?
-Interventions which can effect at a population level may not effect an individual
Eg people may not see themselves as a candidate for disease and thus health message ignored
Why is there an ethical obligation to evaluate health promotion?
-To ensure no harm is being done
What 3 types of evaluation occur after health promotion?
-Process evaluation -> assess process of implementation
-Impact evaluation -> assess immediate effect
-Outcome evaluation -> measures long-term consequences
Why can the timing of health promotion evaluation effect the outcome?
-Delay -> effect may take a long time to become apparent
-Decay -> effects of a promotion may wear off quickly