Session 7 - Infertility Flashcards Preview

Semester 4 - Reproductive System > Session 7 - Infertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 7 - Infertility Deck (21)
1

Define infertility

is the failure to conceive within 1 year

2

How many couples does infertility effect?

15%

3

What is primary infertility?

No previous pregnancy

4

What is secondary infertility?

Previous pregnancy, successful or not

5

How often is infertility the mans fault?

20-25% cases

6

How often is infertility the woman's fault?

45-60% cases

7

What is a normal semen analysis?
Volume
Sperm count
Motility
Morphology

Volume >2ml
Sperm count >20 million/ml
Motility >50%
Morphology >50%

8

What are three main causes of male infertility?

o Abnormal sperm production
 Testicular disease
o Obstruction of ducts
 Infection, vasectomy
o Hypothalmic / Pituitary dysfunction

9

What are the three main causes of anovulation in females?

o Hypothalmic
 Hyperprolactinaemia, weight loss, exercise, stress
o Pituitary
 Pituitary tumours, necrosis
o Ovarian
 Ovarian failure, menopause, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

10

How can you differentiate between causes of anovulation?

Hormone levels

11

Give hormone levels in menopause
LH
FSH
Oestrogen

Give hormone levels in
LH high
FSH high
Oestrogen low

12

Give hormone levels in ovarian failure
LH
FSH
Oestrogen

Give hormone levels in
LH high
FSH high
Oestrogen low

13

Give hormone levels in
LH
FSH
Oestrogen

Give hormone levels in
LH low
FSH low
Oestrogen low

14

Give hormone levels in
LH
FSH
Oestrogen

Give hormone levels in
LH increased ratio
FSH increased ratio
Oestrogen normal

15

Give three ways in which ovulation can be induced

o Anti-oestrogen
 Reduce negative feedback to hypothalamus / pituitary
 Increase GnRH
 Increase FSH
o Gonadotrophins
 FSH administration
o GnRH Agonists
 Pulsatile to mimic secretion

16

Give two causes of tubal occlusion

Sterilisation
PID

17

Give two methods of diagnosing tubal occlusion

 Laparoscopy
 Hysterosalpingogram

18

Give two treatments for tubal occlusion

 Tubal surgery
 Assisted conception

19

Give four main features of polycystic ovarian syndrome

o Increased androgen secretion
o Raised LH/FSH ratio
o Insulin resistance
o Multiple small ovarian cysts

20

Give four major questions to be asked of couple presenting with infertility

o Regular, unprotected intercourse?
o Ovulating?
 Regular menstrual cycle?
 Day 21 Progesterone?
o Patent Tubes
 History of infection / sterilisation
 Hysterosalpingogram
o Adequate sperm count?

21

Give three treatments for anovulation

o Induce ovulation
o Overcome tubal occlusion by surgery or IVF
o If inadequate sperm then
 Artificial insemination by donor
 Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection