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Semester 4 - Reproductive System > Shit you should know > Flashcards

Flashcards in Shit you should know Deck (20)
1

What do mullerian ducts form in the female?

the fallopian tubes (oviducts), the uterus, and the upper third of the vagina

2

Where do testes come from embryologically?

Seminiferous tubules + rete testis form from gonadal cells in urogenital ridge.

3

How does lower third of the vagina develop?

Uterovaginal primordium contacts urogenital sinus walls, forming sinovaginal bulb, forms plate.

4

What are the effects of the Progesterone only pill?

- Thick sticky mucus plug
- Reduction in number and size of endometrial glands, resulting in thin endometrial lining whihc will not support implantation

5

Symptoms of fibroids

- Dysmenorrhoea
- Mennorhagia
- Pelvic pain
- Frequent urination
- Constipation
- Back ache

6

Difference between spermatogenisis and spermiogenesis

Spermatogenesis - A1 Spermatogonia -> 256 spermatids
Spermiogenesis - Spermatids grow tail, acrosome, motility, becoming spermatozoa

7

Why is milk not secreted during pregnancy?

of alveoli, but not secretion.

There is substantial hypertrophy of the ductular-lobular-alveolar system and prominent lobules form. Alveolar cells differentiate to be capable of milk production from mid gestation.

At birth the levels of Progesterone fall sharply, along with a less sharp fall in Oestrogen. These changes lead to the breast becoming responsive to Prolactin.

8

Four symptoms of PID

Menorrhagia
Dysmenorrhoea
Dysuria
Fever
Lower abdominal pain
Vaginal discharche

9

Conservative treatment for fibroids

Watch and wait
Pain relief

10

Causes of bleeding fibroids

Distortion of uterine cavity, muscle can no longer clamp down effectively
Twisting, necrosis, bleeding

11

OCP - Side effects?

Increased chance of breast cancer
Thromboembolism by insituting pro-thrombotic state

12

Causes of assymetric growth restriction

Hypertension
Malnutrition

13

Causes of symmetric growth restriction

Chromosomal abnormalities
Anaemia

14

Pregnancy and glucose, four changea

Increased insulin resistance (hPL)
Increased appetite (progesterone)
Decreased maternal glucose utilization
Increased gluconeogenesis
Decreased fasting blood glucose
Increased post meal blood glucose

15

Stages of menopause

Pre-menopause
Peri-menopause
Menopause
Post-menopause

16

What type of tissue is prostatic stroma?

Fibromuscular

17

Outline the formation of the prostate

o Mesonephric ducts (MD) reach the urogenital sinus (UGS)
 Drains Embryonic urine into the cloaca
o Ureteric Bud (UB) Sprouts from MD
 Ureteric bud will become ureter opening into the bladder
o Smooth musculature begins to appear
 Will become the trigone of the bladder
o UGS begins to expand
o UBs and MDs make independent openings in UGS
o Prostate and prostatic urethra formed. MD is maintained in the male, forming the prostate and ducts of the male reproductive system.

18

Outline pre-menopause

Pre-Menopause
o > 40 years
o Changes in the menstrual cycle
 Follicular phase shortens, with ovulation early or absent
 Less oestrogen secreted
 Less –‘ve feedback, so LH and FSH levels rise
 FSH rises more due to loss of Inhibin too
o Reduced fertility, though still possible to get pregnant


19

Outline menopause

The Menopause
o Cessation of menstrual cycles
o Average age 49-50, but varies
o Female has run out of follicles
o Oestrogen levels fall dramatically
 Less –‘ve feedback, so LH and FSH levels rise
 FSH rises dramatically due to loss of Inhibin too

20

Outline changes which occur in menopause

Vascular
o Hot flushes affect ~80% to some degree
o Transient rises in skin temperature and flushes
o Relieved by Oestrogen treatment
 So must be due to decrease in oestrogen

Oestrogen Sensitive Tissues
o Uterus
 Regression of endometrium
 Shrinkage of myometrium
 Shrinks away into a very small organ
o Thinning of cervix
o Vaginal rugae lost
 Thinner, less distensible
o Involution of some breast tissue
o Changes in skin
o Reduction in bladder tone
Bone
o Bone mass reduces by 2.5% per year for several years
o Increased reabsorption relative to production
o Osteoporosis
 Much greater in some than others
 Major reason for fractures in later life
 Can be limited by Oestrogen therapy