________ - are tissue damage from intense heat, electricity, radiation or certain chemicals (all of which denature cell proteins and cause cell death).
What are the classification of Burns according to its severity ( Depth )?
Classification of burns wherein epidermis and upper region of the dermis is damaged. It has the same symptoms as a 1st degree burn, with blisters.
Known as full thickness burn. It appears as gray-white, cherry red or black. It is not painful because the nerve endings are gone. Skin grafting is usually necessary.
Burn wherein only the epidermis is damaged. There is localized redness, swelling and pain. An example is a sunburn.
It is considered a critical situation if a person has the following. Except:
- 2nd degree burns over 25% of the body.
- 2nd degree burns of Genital area.
- 3rd degree burns over 10% of the body.
- 3rd degree burns of the face, hands or feet.
What is the most critical and immediate threat to someone with serious burns?
loss of fluid and electrolytes
What is the second most critical threat to someone with serious burns?
The Rule of Nines
In an adult, the following are the total body surface area. Give their respective percentages.
- head and neck total for front and back:
- each upper limb total for front and back:
- thorax and abdomen front:
- thorax and abdomen back:
- each lower limb total for front and back:
True or False:
The Rule of Nines is relatively accurate for adults but not for children, due to the relative disproportion of body part surface area.
Localized areas of dead skin that can extend to the subcutaneous tissues, through the epidermis and dermis. Stage I is mild, stage IV is extensive and potentially life-threatening.
Decubitus Ulcers is also known as:
Bed sores, pressure sores or trophic ulcers
What are the causes of Decubitus Ulcers?
Usually tissue overlying a bony prominence that has been subjected to prolonged pressure, against an external object, such as a bed, wheelchair, cast or splint.
The following are predisposing factors and complications of Decubitus Ulcers. Except:
- loss of pain and pressure sensations
- Maximum fat and muscle padding between bony weight bearing prominences and skin
- disuse atrophy, malnutrition, anemia and infection
- paralysis - lower tone in vascular bed and a decrease in circulatory rate
What are the treatments of Decubitus Ulcers?
• Stage I and II are treated by regular repositioning [every 2 hours].
• Stage III and IV require a wound care specialist with treatment ranging from irrigation to debridement and skin grafts.
• Keep area clean and dry.
__________ - are pink, reddish or purplish indented streaks that often appear on the abdomen, breasts, upper arms, buttocks and thighs. Particularly common in pregnant women, especially during the latter half of pregnancy.
Stretch Marks is also known as:?
Stria or Striae
What are the causes of stretch marks?
corticosteroids or Cushing disease
Stretch marks aren't serious and fade over time. In some cases, however, widespread stretch marks are a sign of a medical condition such as:?
Cushing's syndrome or another adrenal gland
True or False:
Treatments can fade and completely remove the appearance of stretch marks.
Treatments can fade the appearance of stretch marks but won't completely remove them.
A thickening of the skin. Usually a protective mechanism due to friction or pressure.
Corns and Calluses
A thickening of the skin that is usually on the tops or sides of a toe.
A thickening of the skin often on the palms or soles.
What are the treatment for corns and calluses?
Reduce friction, pumice or chemical peels.
A mark left on damaged skin after it is healed. Made of collagen fibers. Fills a gap in tissue but is non-functional and contains no follicles or glands.
What are abnormal types of scars?
Keloid and hypertrophic scars
Scar that are more common and do not grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound.
Scar that extend beyond the wound site.
What are the manifestations of scars?
can be flat or elevated, may be pale or red, painful or itchy.
What are the risk of Scars?
Risks: skin cancer, chronic pain, disfiguring, adhesions.
What are the treatment of Scars?