Urticaria is also known as:
__________ - are characterized by edematous plaques. that are accompanied by intense itching. They are usually an allergic reaction to food or medicine.
Intense itching is known as:
edematous plaques is known as:
What is the common cause of Hives?
What are the signs and symptoms of hives?
Itching Wheals Swelling Angioedema ( face, lips, eyes, or hands, feet and throat )
What are the risk factors that can trigger hives?
Medications Shellfish, fish, nuts, eggs, milk and other foods Pollen Animal dander (especially cats) Insect bites
Factors that may also results to hives:
• Infections like mononucleosis or illness (including lupus, other auto-immune diseases and leukemia) • Emotional stress • Extreme cold or sun exposure • Excessive perspiration.
What is the test for hives?
Skin or blood tests are performed to confirm an allergy.
What are the treatments for hives?
• Avoid hot baths or showers. • Avoid irritating the area with tight-fitting clothing. • Calamine lotion or other soothing topical applications. • Antihistamines • Aromatherapy (from qualified professional).
True or False: Treatment may not be needed if the hives are mild or severe. They may disappear on their own.
False Treatment may not be needed if the hives are mild.
What are the complications of hives?
Anaphylaxis (airway is swollen, making breathing difficult). Life-threatening airway obstruction, if swelling occurs in the throat.
Dermatitis is also known as:
__________ - is a general term encompassing various inflamed skin conditions.
What is the most common form of Eczema?
Atopic dermatitis (or "atopic eczema")
What are the Two common form of Eczema?
Atopic dermatitis Contact dermatitis
_____________ - is an inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating or allergy-causing substance (irritant or allergen).
_____________ - is often referred to as "eczema" which is a general term for the several types of inflammation of the skin.
What are the two types of Contact Dermatitis?
Irritant dermatitis Allergic Dermatitis
The most common type of contact dermatitis, involves inflammation resulting from contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents, solvents, or other chemicals. The reaction usually resembles a burn.
The second most common type of contact dermatitis is caused by exposure to a material to which the person has become hypersensitive or allergic. The skin inflammation varies from mild irritation and redness to open sores, depending on the type of irritant, the body part affected and the sensitivity of the individual.
Common allergens associated with contact dermatitis include: Except: 1. Poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac 2. Other plants 3. Gold or other metals 4. Medications 5. Antibiotics, especially those applied to the surface of the skin (topical)
Ture or False: Contact dermatitis may involve a reaction to a substance that the person is exposed to, or uses repeatedly. Although there may be no initial reaction, repeated use (for example, nail polish remover, preservatives in contact lens solutions, or repeated contact with metals in ear-ring posts and the metal backs of watches) can cause eventual sensitization and reaction to the product.
Symptoms of Dermatitis: Except:
- Itching (pruritus) of the skin in exposed areas
- Skin redness or inflammation in the exposed area
- Tenderness of the skin in the exposed area
- Generalized swelling of the skin
- Warmth of the exposed area (may occur)
- Skin lesion or rash at the site of exposure
- Lesions of any type: redness, rash, papules (pimple-like), vesicles and bullae (blisters)
Correct: Localized swelling of the skin
True or False:
The diagnosis of Dermatitis is primarily based on the skin appearance and a history of exposure, to an irritant or an allergen.
According to a North American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
" the gold standard for contact allergen identification."
Patch testing is used for patients who have:
chronic and recurring contact dermatitis
What are the other test that can be done to rule out the cause of Dermatitis?
skin lesion biopsy, or culture of the skin lesion.
What is the initial treatment for dermatitis?
Initial treatment includes thorough washing with lots of water to remove any trace of the irritant that may remain on the skin.
Further exposure to known irritants or allergens should be avoided.
Treatment for dermatitis.
1. Topical corticosteroid
2. In severe cases, systemic
3. Wet dressings and soothing
4. Antipruritic (anti-itch) or drying lotions
What is the complication of dermatitis?
Secondary bacterial skin infections
It is a chronic inflammatory process that usually affects the face. It is sometimes confused with acne and can occur with it
Rosacea [Acne Rosacea]
Early symptoms of Rosacea.
erythema develops and persists
Later symptoms of Rosacea.
Later, telangiectasias form with or without acne components
Bullous hyperplasia is also known as:
The two primary modalities of rosacea treatment.
topical and oral antibiotic agents
True or False:
Mild cases are often not treated at all, or are simply covered up with normal cosmetics.
Therapy for the treatment of rosacea is not curative, and is best measured in terms of reduction in the amount of erythema and inflammatory lesions, decrease in the number, duration and intensity of flares, and concomitant symptoms of itching, burning and tenderness.
___________ - is a skin disease that causes itchy or sore patches of thick, red skin with silvery scales.
What is the clinical features of psoriasis?
They usually occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, face, palms and feet but they can show up on other parts of the body.
What is the etiology of Psoriasis?
A problem with the immune system causes psoriasis. In a process called cell turnover, skin cells that grow deep in your skin rise to the surface.
Duration of Psoriasis.
Psoriasis can last a long time, even a lifetime. Symptoms come and go
Factors that precipitate in developing Psoriasis.
Dry skin and cold weather
Which age group Psoariasis commonly occurs?
Psoriasis usually occurs in adults. It sometimes runs in families.
Treatments for Psoriasis?
Treatments include creams, medications and light therapy.
A skin disorder characterized by chronic itching and scratching. The constant scratching causes thick, leathery, brownish skin.
Lichen simplex chronicus
Conditions that are associated in the development of Lichen Simplex Chronicus .
atopic dermatitis (eczema) or psoriasis
nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other psychologic disorders.
What age group Lichen Simplex Chronicus is common?
mentally retarded children
Lichen Simplex Chronicus is a skin disorder characterized by a self-perpetuating scratch-itch cycle: Except:
1. It may begin with something that rubs, irritates, or scratches the skin, such as clothing.
2. This causes the person to rub or scratch the affected area. Constant scratching causes the skin to thicken.
3. The thickened skin itches, causing more scratching, causing more thickening
4. The skin may become leathery and bluish in the affected area.
It should be Brownish
What are the symptoms of Lichen simplex chronicus?
Itching of the skin ( chronic or Intense, Increases with nervous tension or stress )
Skin lesion, patch, or plaque.
- Exaggerated skin lines over the lesion
- Circumscribed lesion with distinct borders
- Skin lesion becomes leathery textured (lichenification)
- Darkened (hyperpigmented) or reddened skin
- Excoriation, raw areas
- Scratch marks
Common areas of Lichen simplex chronicus.
Commonly located on the ankle, wrist, neck, rectum/anal area, forearms, thighs, lower leg, back of the knee, inner elbow
What is the basis in the diagnosis of Lichen simplex chronicus ?
The diagnosis is primarily based on the appearance of the skin and a history of chronic itching and scratching.
Confirmatory test for Lichen simplex chronicus.
skin lesion biopsy
What is the primary treatment for Lichen simplex chronicus ?
The primary treatment is to stop scratching the skin. May include counseling to become aware of the importance of not scratching, stress management or behavior modification.
What are the treatment of Lichen simplex chronicus ?
A lotion or steroid cream
Soaps or lotions containing coal tar
Dressings that cover and protect the area
Anti-histamines, sedatives, or tranquilizers
Steroids may be injected directly into lesions.
Complications of lichen simplex chronicus.
• Secondary bacterial skin infection
• Permanent scar formation
• Permanent changes in skin color
True or False:
Lichen simplex chronicus may be controlled by reducing stress and scratching. It may return or change sites.
An inflammatory bacterial skin infection of the hair follicle and the associated sebaceous gland [pilosebaceous unit].
___________ - is a common skin disease that affects 85% of people at some time during their lives. It is characterized by papules or comedones, pustules, and nodules in its more severe forms. It is the typical acne experienced by teenagers.
A chronic form of acne that occurs later in life.
Acne vulgaris affects the areas of skin with the most dense population of sebaceous follicles; these areas include:
the face, the upper part of the chest and the back.
Four key factors responsible for the development of an acne lesion.
follicular epidermal hyperproliferation with subsequent plugging of the follicle
the presence and activity of propionibacterium acnes
Three leading hypothesis that have been proposed to explain why the follicular epithelium is hyperproliferative, in individuals with acne.
1. First, androgen hormones have been implicated as the initial trigger.
2. Second, changes in lipid composition have been implicated in the development of acne vulgaris.
3. Inflammation is the third hypothesized factor incriminated in comedone formation.
The clinical lesion that results from follicular plugging.
__________ - is a micro-aerophilic organism present in many acne lesions.
True statement regarding Acne. Except:
1. Acne can cause physical pain and psycho-social suffering
2. A severe inflammatory variant of acne, acne fulminans, can be associated with fever, arthritis and other systemic symptoms
3. Acne vulgaris is more common in females than in males during adolescence
4. It is more common in women than in men during adulthood
5. Adolescent acne usually begins prior to the onset of puberty.
What are the treatment for Acne?
• Mild acid peels
• Vitamin A derived medication
• Treatments for reducing scarring like LASER or dermabrasion
• Oral contraceptives
• Gentle facial cleansers
• Tea tree oil
• Herbal supplements
A common type of skin rash seen in young adults. Occurs most commonly in the fall and spring. It is believed to be caused by a virus.
Pityriasis rosea attacks generally last for __________. Symptoms may disappear by _________ , or last as long as 12 weeks.
4 - 8 weeks
What is the symptoms of Rosecea Pityria?
• Skin lesion or rash
• Itching of the lesions (mild to severe)
• Skin redness or inflammation
What is the characteristics of skin lesion or rash in Rosecea Pityria?
- Starts with a single (herald) lesion
- Followed several days later by more lesions
- May follow cleavage lines or appear in a "Christmas tree" pattern
- Oval plaque, papule or macule
- Sharp border
- May spread
There is generally a single large patch followed several days later by a rash. This is called:
Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea. True or False:
If symptoms are mild, no treatment may be needed.
Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea. Except:
1. Gentle bathing
2. mild lubricants or creams, or mild hydrocortisone creams
3. Topical antibiotics
5. Moderate sun exposure or ultraviolet light treatment
True or False:
Pityriasis rosea usually goes away within 6 - 12 weeks. Recurrences are common.
Antinflammatory skin condition caused by an autoimmune disease.