Viral Infections Flashcards Preview

Pathology 2: Skin Pathology > Viral Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Viral Infections Deck (65):
1

What are the Eight (8) Types of Herpes?
 

1.  Herpes Simplex 1
2.  Herpes Simplex II
3.  Varicella
4.  Epstein-Barr Virus
5.  Cytomegalovirus
6.  Roseola
7.  Roseola
8.  Kaposi Sarcoma

2

________ -  is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. 

Herpes

3

_________ - affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area.  It is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). The virus can spread, even when sores are not present. Mothers can also infect their babies during childbirth. 

Genital herpes

4

What is the incubation period of Herpes?

The sores of a primary infection, appear two to twenty days after contact with an infected person and can last from seven to ten days. 

5

What are the signs and symptoms of Herpes Simplex?

Some people have no symptoms.Others get sores, near the area where the virus has entered the body. They turn into blisters, become itchy and painful and then heal.

6

Varicella is also known as:

Chickenpox

7

_________ -  is an infectious disease caused by the varicella virus. 

Chickenpox

8

What age group mostly affected with varicella?

Most cases occur in children under age 15 but older children and adults can be affected.

9

What are the symptoms of varicella?

Symptoms include an uncomfortable, itchy rash, fever and headache. 

10

The following are characteristics of rash in varicella. Except:

  1. macules
  2. blister
  3. papules
  4. vesicles
  5. crusting

Except: 3

11

True or False:

Varicella is usually mild and lasts 5 to 10 days but it sometimes causes serious problems. Adults and older children tend to become more sick.

True

12

Why Aspirin is contraindicated in person with chickenpox?

Because it may cause Reye Syndrome (swelling of the brain and fat accumulation in liver and other organs). 

13

What are the complications of Chickenpox?

 

Erysipelas, impetigo, pneumonia

14

What are the treatment of chickenpox?

  1. Cool compresses 
  2. anit-itch topical creams
  3. soothing baths
  4. rest
  5. fever reducers
  6. trim fingernails
  7. maintain hydration 

15

Types of Herpes virus that causes coldsores.

Herpes Simplex 1

16

Types of Herpes virus that causes genital herpes .

 Herpes Simplex II

17

Types of herpes that causes chickenpox and shingles. 

Varicella

18

Types of Herpes that causes mononucleosis.

Epstein-Barr Virus

19

Types of herpes that causes common general infection. 

Cytomegalovirus

20

Types of herpes that causes rash and fever in infants. 

 Roseola

21

Types of herpes that causes cancer of the blood vessels. 

Kaposi Sarcoma

22

Herpes Zoster is also known as:

Shingles

23

__________ -  is an acute, localized infection with varicella-zoster virus which causes a painful, blistering rash. Caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. 

 

Herpes zoster

24

True or False:

After an episode of chickenpox, the virus becomes dormant in the body. Herpes zoster occurs as a result of the virus re-emerging after many years. 

True

25

What is the cause of the re-activation of varicella virus that causes Herpes Zoster?

The cause of the re-activation is usually unknown but seems to be linked to aging, stress, or an impaired immune system. Often only one attack occurs, without recurrence. 

26

The statements are true regarding rashes from Herpes Zoster. Except:

  1. The typical rash appears in 2 to 3 days, after the virus has reached the skin.
  2. It consists of red patches of skin with small blisters (vesicles) that look very similar to early chickenpox.
  3. The rash often increases over the next 3 to 5 days. Then, the blisters break, forming Large deep ulcers that begin to dry and form crusts.
  4. The crusts fall off in 2 to 3 weeks, leaving behind pink healing skin. 

 

Except: 3

After the blisters break small ulcers begin to dry and forming crusts.

27

True or False:

Lesions typically appear along a single dermatome (the body area served by a single spinal nerve) and are only on both side of the body (bilateral). 

False

Lesions in Herpes Zoster is unilateral

28

What is the area commonly affected with Herpes Zoster?

Trunk

29

What are the other areas that are affected with Herpes Zoster lesions?

neck or face, mouth or eye. 

30

Involvement of the facial nerve may cause: 

Ramsay Hunt syndrome with facial paralysis, hearing loss, loss of taste in half of the tongue and skin lesions around the ear and ear canal. 

31

Shingles may be complicated by a condition that characterized with persistence of pain in the area where the shingles occurred. Mmay last from months to years, following the initial episode. This pain can be severe enough to be incapacitating. The elderly are at higher risk for this complication.  

post-herpetic neuralgia

32

What is the mode of transmision for herpes Zoster?

direct contact

33

What is the age grop commonly affected with Herpes Zoster?

Herpes zoster may affect any age group but it is
much more common in adults over 60 years old, in children who had chickenpox before the age of one year and in individuals whose immune system is weakened.

34

True or False:

Most commonly, an outbreak of shingles is localized and involves only one dermatome.
 

True

35

What are the underlying conditions that may results by  widespread or recurrent shingles?

  1.  Problem with the immune system such as leukemia, Hodgkin's disease and other cancers, atopic dermatitis, HIV infection, or AIDS.
  2. People with suppressed immune systems due to organ transplant, or treatment for cancer, are also at risk. 

36

Symptoms of herpes Zoster. Except:

1.  Warning symptoms of unilateral (on one side) pain, tingling, or burning sensation limited to a specific part of the body -- pain and burning sensation may be intense.
2.  Reddening of the skin (erythema) followed by the appearance of papule.
3.  Grouped, dense, deep, small blisters that ooze and crust.
 

Except: 2

37

What are the additional symptoms of Herpes Zoster?

•   Fever, chills
•   General feeling of malaise
•   Headache
•   Lymph node swelling
•   Vision abnormalities
•   Taste abnormalities
•   Drooping eyelid (ptosis)
•   Loss of eye motion (ophthalmoplegia)
•   Hearing loss
•   Joint pain
•   Genital lesions (female or male)
•   Abdominal pain 

38

True or False:

Herpes zoster usually disappears on its own, and may not require treatment except for symptom relief, such as pain medication. 

True

39

What are the treatment for Herpes Zoster?

  1. Acyclovir
  2. Corticosteroids
  3. Pain medicines
  4. Antihistamines 
  5. Zostrix
  6.  Cool wet compresses
  7. Soothing baths and lotions

40

_________ - is an antiviral medication that may be prescribed to shorten the course, reduce pain, reduce complications, or protect an immunocompromised individual. 

Acyclovir 

41

__________ - may occasionally be used to reduce inflammation and risk of post-herpetic neuralgia. 

Corticosteroids, such as prednisone

42

_________ - mild to strong, may be needed to control pain. 

analgesics

43

__________ -  may be used topically (direct application to the body) or orally (by mouth) to reduce itching.

Antihistamines

44

________ - a cream containing capsaicin (an extract of pepper), may prevent post-herpetic neuralgia.

 Zostrix

45

The following are complications of Herpes Zoster. Except:

  1. Post herpetic neuralgia.
  2. Secondary bacterial skin infections.
  3. Recurrence (rare).
  4. Localized infection, visceral organ lesions, encephalitis or sepsis in immunosuppressed persons.
  5. Blindness (if lesions occur in the eye)
  6. Deafness
  7. Loss of taste
  8. Facial paralysis

 

 

Except: 4

46

Measles is also known as:

Rubeola 

47

It initially infects the respiratory epithelium and is transmitted via respiratory droplets. It is highly transmissible with an infectivity rate of 76%, even greater than that of varicella. 

 measles virus

48

True or False:

Prior to the measles vaccine, infection with the measles virus was simply considered a part of life. 

True

49

What is the pathognomonic signs of Measles?

Koplik spots 

50

What are the characteristics of lesion in measles?

The lesion is a spreading maculo-papular rash.  It appears in front and below the ears and on the side of the neck spreading to the trunk and extremities. 

51

What are the complications of measles? 

pneumonia and otitis media

52

Rubella is also nown as:

 

German Measles

53

________ - is an illness with flu-like symptoms followed by a rash. 

Rubella 

54

Common symptoms of Rubella includes the following. Except:

  1. High-grade fever
  2. Headache
  3. Runny nose
  4. Red eyes
  5. Muscle or joint pain 

Except: 1

 

Low grade fever not high grade

55

What is the cause of Rubella infection?

RNA virus

56

What is the mode of transmission of Rubella infection?

by air or close contact

57

True or False:

Rubella is usually mild. The biggest danger of rubella is if a mother contracts this, during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. She may lose the baby, or the virus could cause problems to her unborn baby. Those problems could include cataracts, deafness or damage to the heart or brain. 

True

58

What is the prevention of Rubella?

Vaccination

59

_______ - are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). They are generally harmless; however, can be disfiguring and embarrassing and occasionally they itch or hurt (particularly on the feet). 

Warts 

60

Warts is also known as:

 Verrucae 

61

________ -  are generally found on the face and forehead. They are common in children, less common in teens and rare in adults.
 

 Flat warts

62

___________ -  are usually found on the genitals, in the pubic area and in the area between the thighs but they can also appear inside the vagina and anal canal.
 

Genital warts(condyloma) 

63

________- are found on the soles of the feet.
 

Plantar warts

64

____________ - warts appear under and around the fingernails or toenails. 

Subungual and periungual

65

What are the treatment of warts?

Treatment
•   May resolve spontaneously
•   Medical excision
•   Over the counter products to burn off the wart
•   Vaccination to reduce risk of genital warts