Pigmentation Disorders Flashcards Preview

Pathology 2: Skin Pathology > Pigmentation Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pigmentation Disorders Deck (45):

_________ -  are caused by an overgrowth of the cells that create pigment in skin. Happen when blood vessels don't form correctly — either there are too many of them or they're wider than usual. 

Vascular  birthmarks 


What are the common vascular birthmarks?

macular stains, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains



_______ - is an abnormal build up of blood vessels, in the skin or internal organs. It is a type of vascular birthmark as opposed to other types of birthmarks that are called Pigmented marks 



True or False:

The classically recognized hemangioma is a visible red skin lesion that may be in the top skin layers, deeper in the skin,or a mixture of both. 



Hemangioma that is in the top skin layers. 

capillary aka strawberry hemangioma


Hemangioma that is deeper in the skin.

cavernous hemangioma


True or False:

Hemangiomas are usually present at birth, although they may appear within a few months after birth, often beginning at a site that has appeared slightly dusky or a different colour, compared with the surrounding tissue. 




Hemangiomas, both deep and superficial, undergo a rapid growth phase in which the volume and size increase rapidly. This phase is followed by a _______ , when the hemangioma changes very little and an __________  in which the hemangioma begins to disappear. 

rest phase

involutional phase


What are the common areas that hemagioma may appear?

Hemangiomas may be present anywhere on the body; however, they are most disturbing to parents when they are on the infant's face or head.


_____________ -  may interfere with the development of normal vision and must be treated in the first few months of life.

Hemangiomas of the eyelid


True or False:

On rare occasions, the size and location of hemangiomas may interfere with breathing, feeding, or other vital functions. These lesions also require early treatment. 



_______________ -  may develop secondary infections and ulcerate. Bleeding is common and may be significant following injury to the hemangioma. 

Large cavernous hemangiomas


What are the symptoms of hemagioma?

  1. A red to reddish-purple, raised lesion on the skin
  2. A massive, raised tumor with blood vessels (a possibility)




True or False:

Occasionally, a hemangioma may be associated with other rare syndromes. Additional studies may determine if any of these syndromes are present.




What are the treatment for superficial " strawberry" hemagioma?

Superficial or "strawberry" hemangiomas are seldom treated. When they are allowed todisappear on their own, the result shows a normal-appearing skin. In some cases, a laser may be used to eradicate the small vessels. 


What are the treatment for Cavernous hemangiomas?

injections of steroids or laser treatments (  eyelid hemangioma and obstruct vision) 

Large cavernous hemangiomas or mixed hemangiomas are treated, when appropriate, with oral steroids and injections of steroids, directly into the hemangioma. 


What are the complicatons of Hemangioma?


•   Bleeding
•   Visual abnormalities (amblyopia, strabismus)
•   Psychosocial problems


A flat pink, red or purplish lesion present at birth.  It is found usually on the head and/or neck, does not blanch and it persists throughout life. The involved skin may thicken slightly and develop an irregular, pebbled surface as a child grows. 

Port Wine Stain 


Port Wine Stain is also known as: 

Neveus Flammeus


What are the causes of Port Wine Stain [Neveus Flammeus] ?

The cause and origin of PWS remains incompletely understood.  The most likely hypothesis for the development of PWS is the deficiency or absence of surrounding neurons regulating blood flow through the ectatic post-capillary venules. 


What is the treatment of choice for Port Wine Stain [Neveus Flammeus]?


Laser therapy 


_________ : Some fade and some persist. They usually appear around the head area. Most are not clinically significant 

Macular stains


Macular Stains is also called:

salmon patches, angel kisses, or stork bites


Represent abnormal migration or proliferation of melanocytes.They are not usually clinically significant.


Pigmented birthmarks


Pigmented birthmarks includes the following. Except:

  1. Slate-grey nevus [formerly Mongolian spots]
  2. Neveus Flammeus
  3. Moles, also called nevi
  4. Café-au-lait spots 

Except: 2


Yellowish or brownish macules developing on the sun-exposed parts of the skin 

Freckles [Ephelides]


True about freckles. Except:

  1. Increase in number with an increase in sun exposure
  2. Increase in melanin
  3. Inherited trait that tends to fade with age
  4. Tend to become malignant, if left untreated
  5. More frequent in light pigmented individuals 

Except: 4


Flat brown to black patches on the skin of fair-skinned individuals and are usually found on sunlight-exposed areas. Tend to persist year-round, unlike freckles which tend to be more seasonal. 



Lentigo is also nown as:

 sunspots, liverspots, or age spots


Whata are the treatment of Lentigo?

Bleaching medications, or liquid nitrogen

Avoiding the sun

Use sunscreen


Smooth, cherry-red or purple dome-shaped papules. Usually found on the trunk. 



Single dilated blood vessels, capillaries, or terminal arteries that appear on areas exposed to sun or harsh weather, such as cheeks or nose. 



Brown patches of irregular shape and size, on the face and elsewhere.  



Melasma is also known as:aka Chloasma



 If confluent, facial
patches are called the "mask of pregnancy"


Melasma in pregnant women are associated with:

facial patches are called the "mask of pregnancy" which is associated with pregnancy and the use of  oral contraceptives. Also linked to sun exposure in association with hormones. Tends to fade after pregnancy, or when oral contraceptives are stopped. 


A condition in which your skin loses melanin, Occurs when the cells that produce melanin die or no longer form melanin, causing slowly enlarging white patches of irregular shapes to appear on your skin. 



What is the pigment that determines the color of your skin, hair and eyes?



Who can be affected with vetiligo?

Vitiligo affects all races, but may be more noticeable in people with darker skin


True or False:

There is no cure for vitiligo. The goal of treatment is to stop or slow the progression of pigment loss and, if you desire, attempt to return some color to your skin. 



What are the causes and risk factors of vetiligo?

It may be due to an immune system disorder. Heredity may be a factor because there is an increased incidence of vitiligo in some families. Some people have reported a single event, such as sunburn or emotional distress, that triggered the condition. 


What is the goal of treatment for Vetiligo?

The goal of treatment is to stop or slow the progression of pigment loss and, if you desire, attempt to return some color to your skin. 


Self care steps to improve and the appearance of skin in persons with vetiligo. Except:

  1. Using sunscreen
  2. Applying cosmetic camouflage cream
  3. For fair-skinned individuals, tanning can make the areas almost unnoticeable. 

Except: 3


For fair-skinned individuals, avoiding tanning can make the areas almost unnoticeable. 


________ - a group of inherited disorders, results in little or no production of the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are present but do not form melanin, due to a genetic lack of the enzyme tyrosinase which helps to form melanin. 



True about Albinism. Except:

  1. Most people with albinism are sensitive to sun exposure and are at increased risk of developing skin cancer.
  2. All forms of albinism cause problems with the development and function of the Ear.
  3. Although there's no cure for albinism, people with the disorder can take steps to improve vision and avoid too much sun exposure.
  4. Albinism doesn't limit intellectual development, though people with albinism often feel socially isolated and may experience discrimination. 

Except: 2


All forms of albinism cause problems with the development and function of the eyes. Because Melanin also plays a role in the development of certain optical nerves which is affected in person with vetiligo.


After trauma, burns and skin infections, skin will show scarring and atrophic skin, which will appear white compared to the surrounding skin. Not clinically significant. This is callled:


Post-inflammatory hypopigmentation