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Pathology 2: Skin Pathology > Skin Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Tumours Deck (65):

A benign skin growth. A tiny flap of skin attached by a narrow stalk, usually skin colored but may be darker. 

Skin Tag 


Skin Tag is also known as:


Cutaneous Papilloma


What  age group is commonly affected with skin tags?

Most common in middle age and elderly 


What are the areas of the body, skin tags tend to occur?

areas of skin folds or friction 


True or False:

Skin tags are caused by genetic or poor hygiene.




Cause: genetic or friction 


What is the treatment for Skin Tags?

excision or cryotherapy 


A tumor composed of nests of nevus cells, usually presenting as tan to brown small macules or papules with well-defined, rounded borders.

Nevocellular nevi


An acquired atypical nevus with an irregular border, indistinct margin and mixed coloration, characterized by intra-epidermal melanocytic dysplasia and possibly a precursor of malignant melanoma.

Dysplastic nevi


Nevi is also known as: 

Moles or Nevus


The following are characteristics of Dysplastic nevi. Except:

  1. Resembles melanoma
  2. Smaller than other nevi
  3. Flat, slightly raised plaque with a pebbly surface
  4. Brown and red to flesh tone
  5. Irregular borders
  6. Unlike other moles, they occur on both sun and no-sun surfaces


Except: 2


Larger than other nevi


Charcteristics of Nevocellular nevi. True or False:

Tan to deep brown. Uniformly pigmented, small papules with well defined and rounded borders.



What are the trestment for Nevi?

Treatment: watch for changes, excision or biopsy, ignore them.


The presence of benign growths on the surface of the skin. The origin is unknown. It commonly appears after age 40. 

Seborrheic keratosis


The following are True regarding tumor appear in Seborrheic keratosis. Except:

  1. The tumors appear as wart-like growths in a variety of colors.
  2. They may appear in small numbers on the surface of the body.
  3. They are usually painless and benign but may become irritated and itch.
  4. They may be cosmetically disfiguring and psychologically distressing. 

Except: 2


They may appear in large numbers


What are the symptoms of Seborrheic Keratosis?

Symptoms are skin growths that: 

•   Are located on the face, chest, shoulders, back, or other areas
•   Are yellow, brown, black, or other colors
•   Have a slightly elevated, flat surface
•   May have a rough texture
•   Often may have waxy surface
•   Have a round-to-oval shape
•   May have "pasted-on" appearance
•   May be single, but are usually multiple growths 


What is the treatment for Seborrheic Keratosis? 



  1. Treatment is usually not required unless the growths become irritated or are cosmetically displeasing.
  2. If treatment is needed, growths may be surgically removed or removed by cryotherapy (freezing).



_________ - is a common precancerous skin growth usually caused by sun exposure. Occurs most commonly in fair skin, especially in the elderly and in young
individuals with light complexions. The growths occur in sun-exposed skin areas

Actinic keratosis


Descriptions of Actinic keratosis. Except:

1. The growths begin as flat, scaly areas that later develop a hard wart-like surface.

2. They can be accompanied by lentigines (liver spots) that occur normally on aging skin.

3. They are classified as precancerous growths. If left untreated, approximately 1% of actinic keratoses develop into squamous cell carcinoma. 

4. They are usually painless and benign but may become irritated and itch. 

Except: 4


What are the symptoms of Actinic keratosis?



•   Rough and dry textured skin lesion
•   A macule, patch, or growth on the skin


Descriptions of  macule, patch, or growth on the skin in Actinic keratosis. Except:


  1. Limited to a discrete area (localized)
  2. Located on the face, scalp, back of the hands, chest, and genital areas.
  3. Gray, pink, red or the same color as the skin
  4. Initially flat and scaly on the surface, becoming slightly raised
  5. Becoming hard and wart-like or gritty, rough and like sandpaper
  6. may  develop a horn-like texture from overgrowth of a keratin layer (hyperkeratosis) 

Except: 2


The growths occur in sun-exposed skin areas.

Genitals areas is not included


What are the treatment of Actinic keratosis?

Growths may be removed by cryotherapy (freezing), electrical cautery (burning) or surgery.

Growths may also be treated with medications, that cause skin peeling, or removal.

More recently, lasers have been used to treat actinic keratoses. 


True or False:

Complications of Actinic Keratosis are:

•   Squamous cell carcinoma
•   Irritation and discomfort of the skin growth



What are the two major groups of skin cancer?

non-melanoma and melanoma


It is a type of non-melanoma skin cancer and is the most common form of cancer in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society,75% among of all skin cancers.

Basal cell carcinoma


Basal Cell Carcinoma is also known as:

Rodent ulcer


The following are risk factors for basal cell skin cancer. Except:


  1. Dark-colored skin
  2. Blue or green eyes
  3. Blond or red hair
  4. Over-exposure to x-rays or other forms of radiation


Except: 1


light colored skin not dark.


What age group is more commonly affected with basal cell skin cancer?

Basal cell skin cancer used to be more common with people over age 40 but is now often diagnosed in younger people. 


What are the areas of the body basal cell skin cancer may occur?

The majority of these cancers occur on areas of skin that are regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation.


True or False:

Basal cell carcinoma starts in the epidermis (stratum basale). It grows slowly and is painless. A new skin growth that bleeds easily, or does not heal well, may suggest basal cell carcinoma. 



True or False:

Basal cell skin cancer commonly spreads to all surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. 



Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. But, if left untreated, it may grow into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. 


What are the symptoms of basal cell skin cancer?

Basal cell carcinoma may look only slightly different than normal skin. The cancer may appear as skin bump or growth that is:

•   Pearly or waxy
•   White or light pink
•   Flesh-colored or brown


Symptoms of basal cell skin cancer. Except:

In some cases the skin may be just slightly raised or even flat. One may have:

  1.  A skin sore that bleeds easily
  2. A sore that does not heal
  3. Oozing or crusting spots in a sore
  4. Appearance of a wart-like sore without having injured the area
  5. Irregular blood vessels in or around the spot
  6. A sore with a depressed (sunken) area in the middle 

Except: 4


scar- like sore not wart- like


True or False:

Treatment of basal cell skin cancer varies depending on the size, depth and location of the basal cell cancer.



What are the treatment of Basal cell skin cancer?

  1. Excision
  2. Curettage and electrodessication.
  3. Surgery
  4. Cryosurgery freezes and kills the cancer cells
  5. Radiation may be used if the cancer has spread to organs or lymph nodes, or for tumors that can not be treated with surgery 


True or False:

Prognosis of basal cell skin cancer:

The rate of basal cell skin cancer returning, is about 1% with Moh’s surgery to up to 10% for other forms of treatment. Smaller basal cell carcinomas are less likely to come back compared with larger ones. 



What are the complications of basal cell skin cancer?


Untreated, basal cell cancer can spread to nearby tissues or structures, causing damage. This is most worrisome around the nose, eyes and ears.


Cancer that results when cells in the epidermis start to change. The morphology is similar to Actinic Keratosis but all the layers of the skin are affected. 

Squamous cell carcinoma


Risks for squamous cell skin cancer include the following. Except:

  1. Exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation
  2. Older age
  3. Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes and blond or red hair
  4. Chemical pollution
  5. A small number of x-rays 
  6. Arsenic 

Except: 5


Difference between  Squamous cell cancer and basal cell cancer. True or False:

Squamous cell cancer spreads faster than basal cell cancer but still may be relatively slow growing. It can metastasize to other locations, including internal organs. 



What is the main symptoms of Squamous cell cancer ?

The main symptom of squamous cell skin cancer is a growing bump that may have a rough, scaly surface and flat reddish patches. 


What areas the bump from Squamous cell cancer  is usually located?


The bump is usually located on the face, ears, neck, hands, or arms but may occur on other areas. 


Sign that may suggest squamous cell cancer.

A sore that does not heal

Any change in an existing wart, mole, or other skin lesion could be a sign of skin cancer. 


What are the treatments of Squamous Cell Carcinoma ?

  1. Surgery
  2. Microscopic shaving (Moh’s surgery)
  3. Skin grafting
  4. Radiation therapy
  5.  Chemotherapy ( It usually does not work very well for squamous cell cancer)




True or False:


Most (95%) of squamous cell tumors may be cured if removed promptly. New tumors may develop, so affected individuals should be diligent about examining the skin. Regular examination by the health-care provider is usually required. 



What are the complications of Squamous cell carcinoma?

•   Local spread of the tumor.


•   Metastasis to other locations, including the internal organs.


________ -  is a cancer that starts in the cells that produce melanin. . It occurs when a melanocyte grows uncontrollably and develops into a tumour.  It is the least common, but most serious, type of skin cancer. 



The cells that produce melanin is called:



What are the areas of the body that melanoma is most frequently found?

Melanoma is most frequently found on the back of men and on the back and legs of women. 


What are the 4 major types of melanoma?

•   Superficial spreading melanoma
•   Nodular melanoma 
•   Lentigo maligna melanoma 
•   Acral lentiginous melanoma


___________ - is the most common type of melanoma. It is usually flat and irregular in shape and color, with varying shades of black and brown. It may occur at any age or site and is most common in Caucasians.

  Superficial spreading melanoma 


_____________ - usually starts as a raised area that is dark blackish-blue or bluish-red, although some are without color.

 Nodular melanoma


_____________ - usually occurs in the elderly. It is most common in sun damaged skin on the face, neck and arms. The abnormal skin areas are usually large, flat and tan with intermixed areas of brown.

 Lentigo maligna melanoma


______________ - is the least common form of melanoma. It usually occurs on the palms, soles, or under the nails and is more common in African Americans. 

  Acral lentiginous melanoma


__________ -  can spread very rapidly and is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Although it is less common than other types of skin cancer, the rate is steadily increasing. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. 



What are the characteristics of melanoma?

Melanoma may appear on normal skin, or it may begin as a mole or another area that may have changed in appearance. Some moles present at birth may develop into melanomas. 


According to Health Canada, risk factors include, but are not limited to the following: Except:

  1. Personal or family history of melanoma
  2. Presence of moles--especially if there are many, or if they are unusual or large Sun sensitivity--sun burning easily, or difficulty tanning
  3. Dark colored skin, eyes and hair
  4. History of excessive sun exposure
  5. Diseases that suppress the immune system
  6. Occupational exposure to coal tar, pitch, creosote, arsenic compounds or radium


Except: 3


The ABCDE system may help you remember features that might be a symptom of melanoma: Except:

  1. Asymmetry: One half of the abnormal area is different from the other half
  2. Borders: The lesion or growth has irregular edges
  3. Characteristics
  4. Diameter: The trouble spot is usually (but not always) larger than 6 mm in diameter about the size of a pencil eraser
  5. Evolution: Rapid changes or growth in a lesion may be serious and should be checked by a professional


Except: 3


What are the treatment of melanoma?

  1. surgical lymph node biopsy
  2. skin graft 
  3. Treatment with interferon after surgery
  4. chemotherapy and use of

interferon or interleukin may be tried


True ragarding Prognosis of melanoma. Except:

  1. treatment success depends on many factors, including the patient's general health and whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs.
  2. If caught early, melanoma can be cured. The risk of the cancer coming back increases with the depth of the tumor -- deeper tumors are more likely to come back. 
  3. For melanoma that has spread to other tissues and organs, the cure rate is higher. Melanoma that has spread may lead to disability.




Except: 3


What are the complications of melanoma? 

Complications of melanoma include the following:


•   Spread to other organs
•   Side effects of treatment, e.g. scarring, nausea


Skin Cancer Prevention: 

Health Canada states the following practices to reduce the risk of skin cancer: Except:

  1. Avoid the use of tanning lamps
  2. Be aware that certain medications can make your skin more sensitive to UV rays.Consult your doctor if you have questions about your medication
  3. Exposing yourself to the sun without protection, especially between 11:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. during the summer months because UVB is highest in these hours during the summer months .



Except: 3



___________ -  is an intermediate grade malignant cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose and throat or in other organs.  It is not a skin cancer but occurs in the blood vessels and often affects the skin, as well as the internal organs and tissues. 

Kaposi sarcoma


What is the virus that causes Kaposi Sarcoma?

herpes virus [VIII]


What are the symptoms of Kaposi Sarcoma?

The red and purple patches often cause no symptoms, though they may be painful.

If the cancer spreads to the digestive tract or lungs, bleeding can result.

Lung tumors can make breathing difficult


True about Kaposi Sarcoma. Except:

  1. Before the AIDS epidemic, Kaposi Sarcoma usually developed slowly. In AIDS patients, the disease moves quickly.
  2. Treatment depends on where the lesions are and how bad they are.
  3. Treatment for the AIDS virus itself cannot shrink the lesions; however, treating Kaposi Sarcoma does improve survival from AIDS itself.  

Except: 3


Treatment for the AIDS virus itself can shrink the lesions; however, treating Kaposi Sarcoma does not improve survival from AIDS itself.