Small mammal GI disease - rabbits Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Small mammal GI disease - rabbits Deck (30):
1

Can rodents and rabbits vomit?

No

2

What are the 2 types of fibre?

INDIGESTIBLE - larger particles, stimulate GIT motility and dental wear
DIGESTIBLE - small particles, fermented by GI bacteria to produce FAs

3

What is the fusus colis? Function?

The distal part of the proximal colon
Controls motility

4

How is digestible fibre separated from indigestible fibre?

Contractions separate indigestible fibre which is passes on to produce >150 faecal pellets per day. Digestible fibre is washed back to the caecum for fermentation.

5

When are caecotrophs produced?

3-8hours after eating, usually at night, covered in mucous

6

Caecotrophs are eaten and redigested to provide what? 4

microbial protein, B and K vitamins and fatty acids. Rodents still need an additional source of B vitamins even if eating caecotrophs as their production of them is less effective than rabbits

7

Which antibiotics cannot be given orally to rabbits or rodents? Why?

-PLACE RULE:
-PENICILLINS
-LINCOSAMIDES
-AMINOGLYCOSIDES
-CEPHALOSPORINS
-ERYTHROMYCIN

-when given orally, these ABs causes a reductionin some intestinal bacteria allowing overgrowth of others e.g. Clostridium and toxin production

8

Causes of gut stasis - 7 (2 most common)

COMMONEST = stress and pain
ALSO - dehydration, anorexia, primary GI disease, toxin ingestion, insufficient fibre

9

What is the logical approach to gut stasis?

Problem - complete or partial? +/- anorexia
System - primary or secondary GI disease
Location - proximal or distal GI system
Lesion ??? not always determined

10

What are important aspects of history?

-Husbandry - indoor/outdoor? Companions? changes?, access to FBs or toxins?
-Diet - regular and treats
-Standard medical history - especially eating and faeces produciton

11

What do you use to inspect rabbit teeth?

Otoscope

12

Indicators of primary GI disease - 3

-History of poor diet/dietary change
-Palpable abnormality in gut
-onset of gut stasis precedes any signs of malaise

13

When would you suspect secondary GI disease?

-History of stress
-Obvious source of pain

14

Steps to stabilise rabbit with gut stasis - 5

Warmth, fluid, nutrition, gut stimulants, analgesia

15

Normal temperature of a rabbit

38-39.5 degrees
n.b. high surface area to volume ratio so beware of rapid heat loss/gain

16

What are the principles of rabbit fluid therapy?

-Maintenance <100ml/kg/day
-IV if possible but often divided between IV and SC (sometimes also oral)
-Warm SC fluids and add hyaluronidase (both increase speed of fluid absorption)

17

How do you feed the rabbit with gut stasis?

50ml/kg/day (split between 3-5 meals if completly anorexic)
Nasogastric tube occasionally necessary

18

When would you use METOCLOPRAMIDE?
Location of action?
Mechanism?

-Prokinetic (affects Ach release and dopamine/serotonin receptors)
-Works on oesophagus, stomach, proximal SI not colon

19

Uses - RANITIDINE.
Location of action?
Mechanism?

-treat GI ulcers
-works on histamine H2 receptors
-Prokinetic (has effects on acetylcholinesterase inhibition)
-works on proximal GIT but may stimulate colonic motility too

20

Uses - CISAPRIDE - location? Mechanism>

- more potent prokinetic than metoclopramide - works on serotonin receptors to indirectly stimualte Ach release
-Works on oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon

21

In reality how do you use prokinetics?

Usually use 2 or 3 at the same time

22

Which 2 options are the most common analgesics? Dose?

-NSAIDS - meloxicam (ensure animal is well-hydrated, consider simultaneous gastro-protectants)
-OPIODS - buprenorphine.
-Both require higher doses than dogs/cats due to higher metabolic rate.

23

Indications of an obstruction - 4

-Visualisation of a FB
-gastric dilation
-gas shadows in SI cranial to an obstruction
-serial radiographs to check if gas is moving through the hindgut

24

Indications for blood tests with gut stasis

-If systemic disease is suspected (renal/hepatic failure, lead/zinc levels))
-Elevated glucose levels can indicate severity of condition

25

Why is it not always possible to define the lesion? 4 Risk of this?

-GA not always desirable in these cases
-Gastroscopy limited by full stomach
-Intestinal biopsies carry risk of dehiscence and infection -many cases resolve with symptomatic treatment only

MAY have recurrent episodes

26

How do you approach diarrhoea cases in rabbits/rodents?

Same as dogs and cats:
-acute/chronic?
-if acute - with(out) systemic signs?
-SI/LI/mixed?

True diarrhoea or caecotrophs?

27

Common causes of diarrhoea in rabbits/rodents - 6

Similar to dogs/cats:
Diet, ABs, post-weaning, bacterial enteritis, viral enteritis, coccidiosis

28

Diagnosis - diarrhoea in rabbits/rodents - 4

-Faecal parasitology
-Faecal microbiology
-Abdominal imaging
-Bloods

29

Stabilising rabbit with diarrhoea - 4

Same as gut stasis but without need for gut stimulants! (i.e. warmth, fluids, nutrition, analgesia)

30

Specific treatments - rabbit/rodent diarrhoea - 4

-Treat any coccidia - Toltrazuril
-Colestryamine - to bind enterotoxins
-ABs if bacterial enteritis (metronidazole)
-Probiotics? (no evidence but not harmful)