Flashcards in Small mammal GI disease - rabbits Deck (30):
Can rodents and rabbits vomit?
What are the 2 types of fibre?
INDIGESTIBLE - larger particles, stimulate GIT motility and dental wear
DIGESTIBLE - small particles, fermented by GI bacteria to produce FAs
What is the fusus colis? Function?
The distal part of the proximal colon
How is digestible fibre separated from indigestible fibre?
Contractions separate indigestible fibre which is passes on to produce >150 faecal pellets per day. Digestible fibre is washed back to the caecum for fermentation.
When are caecotrophs produced?
3-8hours after eating, usually at night, covered in mucous
Caecotrophs are eaten and redigested to provide what? 4
microbial protein, B and K vitamins and fatty acids. Rodents still need an additional source of B vitamins even if eating caecotrophs as their production of them is less effective than rabbits
Which antibiotics cannot be given orally to rabbits or rodents? Why?
-when given orally, these ABs causes a reductionin some intestinal bacteria allowing overgrowth of others e.g. Clostridium and toxin production
Causes of gut stasis - 7 (2 most common)
COMMONEST = stress and pain
ALSO - dehydration, anorexia, primary GI disease, toxin ingestion, insufficient fibre
What is the logical approach to gut stasis?
Problem - complete or partial? +/- anorexia
System - primary or secondary GI disease
Location - proximal or distal GI system
Lesion ??? not always determined
What are important aspects of history?
-Husbandry - indoor/outdoor? Companions? changes?, access to FBs or toxins?
-Diet - regular and treats
-Standard medical history - especially eating and faeces produciton
What do you use to inspect rabbit teeth?
Indicators of primary GI disease - 3
-History of poor diet/dietary change
-Palpable abnormality in gut
-onset of gut stasis precedes any signs of malaise
When would you suspect secondary GI disease?
-History of stress
-Obvious source of pain
Steps to stabilise rabbit with gut stasis - 5
Warmth, fluid, nutrition, gut stimulants, analgesia
Normal temperature of a rabbit
n.b. high surface area to volume ratio so beware of rapid heat loss/gain
What are the principles of rabbit fluid therapy?
-IV if possible but often divided between IV and SC (sometimes also oral)
-Warm SC fluids and add hyaluronidase (both increase speed of fluid absorption)
How do you feed the rabbit with gut stasis?
50ml/kg/day (split between 3-5 meals if completly anorexic)
Nasogastric tube occasionally necessary
When would you use METOCLOPRAMIDE?
Location of action?
-Prokinetic (affects Ach release and dopamine/serotonin receptors)
-Works on oesophagus, stomach, proximal SI not colon
Uses - RANITIDINE.
Location of action?
-treat GI ulcers
-works on histamine H2 receptors
-Prokinetic (has effects on acetylcholinesterase inhibition)
-works on proximal GIT but may stimulate colonic motility too
Uses - CISAPRIDE - location? Mechanism>
- more potent prokinetic than metoclopramide - works on serotonin receptors to indirectly stimualte Ach release
-Works on oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon
In reality how do you use prokinetics?
Usually use 2 or 3 at the same time
Which 2 options are the most common analgesics? Dose?
-NSAIDS - meloxicam (ensure animal is well-hydrated, consider simultaneous gastro-protectants)
-OPIODS - buprenorphine.
-Both require higher doses than dogs/cats due to higher metabolic rate.
Indications of an obstruction - 4
-Visualisation of a FB
-gas shadows in SI cranial to an obstruction
-serial radiographs to check if gas is moving through the hindgut
Indications for blood tests with gut stasis
-If systemic disease is suspected (renal/hepatic failure, lead/zinc levels))
-Elevated glucose levels can indicate severity of condition
Why is it not always possible to define the lesion? 4 Risk of this?
-GA not always desirable in these cases
-Gastroscopy limited by full stomach
-Intestinal biopsies carry risk of dehiscence and infection -many cases resolve with symptomatic treatment only
MAY have recurrent episodes
How do you approach diarrhoea cases in rabbits/rodents?
Same as dogs and cats:
-if acute - with(out) systemic signs?
True diarrhoea or caecotrophs?
Common causes of diarrhoea in rabbits/rodents - 6
Similar to dogs/cats:
Diet, ABs, post-weaning, bacterial enteritis, viral enteritis, coccidiosis
Diagnosis - diarrhoea in rabbits/rodents - 4
Stabilising rabbit with diarrhoea - 4
Same as gut stasis but without need for gut stimulants! (i.e. warmth, fluids, nutrition, analgesia)