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Flashcards in Cow with abdominal problem Deck (34):

What VFAs are produced in the cow rumen and under what conditions?

-Main VFA at normal pH is acetate (-->milk fat)
-Starch and sugar digestion --> decreased pH -->different organisms predominate -->propionate and butyrate produced
-At even lower pH lactate is produced --> rumen acidosis and rumen stasis.


What are the features of salivation?

3.5kg bicarbonate
production caused by chewing and ruminating
must be comfortable, laying down, 14 h/day


What are the 2 types of ruminal acidosis?

Acute ruminal acidosis - medical emergency
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) - more chronic, herd-wide


What causes acute ruminal acidosis?

Sudden ingestion of large amounts of fermentable carbohydrates (breaking into feed stores, sudden lack of forage/straw bedding). Poor/guarded prognosis.


What are the clinical signs of acute RA?

anorexia, blind, dehydration
umen stasis and abdominal distension
dehydrated (increased pulse, sunken eyes)


How could you treat acute RA? (4)

-5% sodium bicarbonate slow i/v (5L/450kg over 30 mins)
-i/vfluids isotonic NaCl (150ml/kg over 6-12 hours)
-oral magnesium hydroxide (500g/450kg)
-rumenotomy and/or rumen lavage


What signs would make you suspect SARA? (6)

-low milk fat and depressed milk yields (due to acetate)
-laminitis (solar ulcers and haemorrhages)
-reduced appetite
-liver abscesses
-haemoptysis and epistaxis (because of thrombosis of CdVC)
-high herd culling rate


Distinguish epistaxis and haemoptysis

-Epistaxis = bleeding from nose
-Haemoptysis = coughing of blood due to bleeding into lungs (and respiratory tract)


What are the clinical signs of rumen bloat/tympany? (5)

-Left flank distension (mild - distension of left sublumbar fossa/more severe-get distension of whole left flank/very severe-entire abdomen appears distended)
-Sudden death
-standing quietly with left distended flank.


What is the difference and the difference in causes between frothy bloat and free gas bloat?

-Frothy - stable foam forms in rumen which traps gas meaning the animal cannot eructate. Due to cattle at pasture as the foamins is caused by the properties of soluble leaf proteins but also with cereal rich diets. It can be sudden and sever and cause sudden death

-Gaseous - usually due to excessive carbohydrate intakes but essentially anything causing oesophageal obstruction. Usually single animals. Appears like milk fever and lateral recumbency means the cardia of the stomach is blocked.


How do you treat frothy bloat? (3) How can it be prevented? (3)

-Remove cattle from pasture/feed source (asap)
-Passing stomach tube or inserting ruminal trocar will not work
-Treat orally with antifoaming agent/surfactant to disperse the foam (e.g. Poloxalene or simethicone (BIRP) or even mineral/corn oil).
-Sit in sternal recumbency to allow eructation
-PREVENT: (careful pasture management and care with lush or clover-rich pastures; strip graze, buffer feeding etc).


Name 4 causes of oesophageal obstruction.

-lesions of oesophageal groove (vagus indigestion or actinobacillus)
-enlarged mediastinal LNs (after pneumonia)
-tetanus (gaseous bloat is often first sign of this)


3 ways to treat gaseous bloat =?

-Stomach tube
-Rumen puncture (trocar and cannula or red devil trocar and cannula; place in centre of left paralumbar fossa)


What happens if sharp metallic objects penetrate the wall of the reticulum? (4)

-local peritonitis (usually)
-diffuse peritonitis (occasionally)
-pericarditis (if unlucky)
-liver abscess


List some common causes of traumatic reticulo-peritonitis/hardware disease.

-wire from tyres/builders/bales/TMR
-Screws, nails


What are the clinical signs of traumatic reticulo-peritonitis/hardware disease.

Often vague and numerous presentations: decreased milk yield/appetite, increased temp, arched back, rumen contraction rate down and reticulo-rumen movements reduced or painful

PE- jugular pulse and splashing sounds over the heart


Name 3 diagnostic tests for traumatic reticulo-peritonitis (TRP)/hardware disease.

- Withers pinch (normal cow drops down normally. Positive for hardware disease if cow refuses to do this or it appears painful)
-Pole test - touch pole to the xiphoid, will hunch away from contact
-Eric Williams test - list to the rume and just before the reticulum-rumen phase starts, the cow will grunt, hold breath and shuffle feet for TRP.


How can TRP be treated? (3)

-Conservatively: (tie animal up with front feet raised, parentral AB for 5-7d, apin relief)
-Rumenotomy - remove wire
-Slaughter - often


What are the main causes of pinging when auscultating a cow's abdomen? (4)

-abomasal torsion
-caecal dilatation and torsion
-gas in spiral colon (not a cause but can mislead you!)


What are the causes of LDA? (6)

-Poorly understood
-Poor management over transition period (dry period -->post calving period)
-high concentrate diet
-insufficient fibre
-diet changes made to quickly
-other diseases (milk fever, RFM)
-genetic factors


Clinical signs - LDA (5)

High variable: drop in milk yield (variable), reduced/changed appetite (they try to eat less concentrate but keep eating forage), raised ketone levels (blood and urine), loss of BCS, reduced rumen contractions (variable)


Diagnosis - LDA

Listen for pings over WHOLE left flank (minimum 12 places). Sounds = ping and tinkle (in the place where you heard the ping, punch the abdomen and you shall hear this sound!)


How do you treat LDA? (5)

-Roll and toggle
-Right flank omentopexy
-Left flank omentopexy
-right paramedian abomasopexy


Other less common causes of left-sided pings (4)

-rumen collapse
-vagal indigestion


What is the risk with an RDA? (2)

Risk of it twisting to become an abomasal torsion or volvulus (both clinical emergencies)


Clinical signs of RDA

Ping (like LDA) but this is much rarer (vs. LDA)
cow sick/shocked/dehydrated/in pain
Must operate or slaughter quickly


What causes caecal dilation or torsion?

Similar to those for LDA (Poor management over transition period (dry period -->post calving period)
-high concentrate diet
-insufficient fibre
-diet changes made to quickly
-other diseases (milk fever, RFM)
-genetic factors)


Clinical signs of caecal dilation or torsion?

Similar to LDA but variable and vague:High variable: drop in milk yield (variable), reduced/changed appetite (they try to eat less concentrate but keep eating forage), raised ketone levels (blood and urine), loss of BCS, reduced rumen contractions (variable)


Diagnosis - caecal dilation or torsion?

-Rectal examination - caecal apex palpable coming into pelvic inlet (sausage pointing towards yo)
-Ping (right paralumbar fossa)


Risk of caecal dilation?

Free caudal end may twist --> volvulus


Treatment options - caecal dilation (3)

-High fibre diet
-surgery (if persists)


Treatment options - caecal volvulus

Drain surgically, exteriorise, pack abdomen, incise apex and drain. Stitch, return to correct place and suture up.


What is a spiral colon?

Gas in spiral colon causes ping in right paralumbar fossa but NOT CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT. Can happen when a cow has diarrhoea.


Distinguish causes of ping on left and right side

LEFT - nearly always LDA, others possible (bloat, rumen collapse, vagal indigestion, pneumoperitoneum)

RIGHT - RDA, abomasal volvulus (v. serious), caecal dilation (relatively benign) or volvulus, gas in spiral colon, uterine tear at calving, ruptured abomasal ulcer