Diarrhoea in foal - additional notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diarrhoea in foal - additional notes Deck (50):
1

Cause of foal heat diarrhoea?

unidentified, may be dietary changes or changes in GI function

2

Age a foal gets foal heat diarrhoea

5-14d

3

Cause of foal viral diarrhoea? age?

rotavirus usually (rarely but possibly adeno, corona, parvo)
less than 2 months

4

Diagnosis - viral diarrhoea

faecal ELISA, latex agglutination, EM

5

Age of foal with salmonellosis

all ages but under 14d may get bacteraemia/sepsis without diarrhoea

6

Diagnosis - salmonelloisis

faecal/blood culture. Need serial faecal cultures (3-5) as organism is shed intermittently in faeces and can be ahrd to culture. culture SF etc if other body systems affected. PCR may be more sensitive

7

Treatment - salmonellosis - 2

supportive and broad-specturm ABs (base on culture and sensitivity). ISOLATE (zoonotic)

8

Clostridial diarrhoea - causes

C.perfringens or difficile

9

Age of foal with clostridial disease?

24-48 hours, can be seen in older foals

10

Diagnosis - clostridial diarrhoea

faecal culture - selective medium may be required.
toxins in faeces - ELISA
Gram stain of faeces - gram positive (purple) rods)

11

Treatment - clostridial diarrhoea - 2

Supportive
broad spectrum ABs (including metronidazole)

12

Aetiologic agent - proliferative enteropathy

Lawsonia intracellularis

13

Age of foal with proliferative enteropathy

weanlings (6-12months)

14

Diagnosis of proliferative enteropathy - 4

-Clinical signs in weanlings (depression, rapid weight loss, ventral oedema, diarrhoea, colic +/- resp disease).
-Faecal PCR
-Serology
-Abdominal ultrasound - thick SI

15

Treatment - proliferative enteropathy

AB (erythromycin +/- rifampin)
Others - doxycycline, OTC, penicillins, chloramphenicol
Supportive care - often IV plasma needed

16

Proliferative enteropathy disease incidence

Not in UK

17

Cause of rhodoococcal diarrhoea? Type of bacteria?

Rhodococcus equi - gram positive coccobacilli, intracellular

18

Age of foal with rhodococcal diarrhoea?

2-6 months

19

Diagnosis - rhodococcal diarrhoea - 3

-Pneumonia - culture organism from resp sectretion
-Thoracic radiograph/ultrasound
-Abdominal ultrasound - may see abscess

20

Treatment - rhodococcal diarrhoea

Eryhthromycin (azithromycin/calrythromycin) + rifampin

21

Cause of protozoal diarrhoea? Age of foal?

Cryptosporidium spp
usually pre-weaning (foal may not have diarrhoea)
CARE = zoonotic!

22

Diagnosis - protozoal diarrhoea - 2

Detect faecal oocysts, direct immunofluorescence staining

23

Cause - parasitic diarrhoea - 2

Strongyloides westeri (young foals via mulk) /vulgaris (older than 2 weeks)

24

Clinical signs - parasitic diarrhoea

S.westeria - none to mild diarrhoea
S. vulgaris - colic, diarrhoea

25

Diagnosis - parasitic diarrhoea

FEC - S.westeri PPP 8-12 days
S vulgaris PPP 6 months os FEC not useful
THEREFORE use farm dewaorming history and clinical signs

26

Treatment - strongyloides - 5

S.westeri = benzimidazoles, ivermectin
S. vulgaris = ivermectin, fenbendazole or thaibendazole

27

Cause of necrotising enterocolitis

Unknown. may be clostridial spp.
Premature foals and those with perinatal asphyxia syndrome (PAS) may be at increased risk

28

Diagnosis - necrotising enterocolitis

Isolation of clostridial spp
gas in wall of intestine via radiographs or ultrasound
foal may have other signs of PAS

29

treatment - necrotising enterocolitis - 3

-Discontinue enteral feeding
-Parenteral nutrition
-Broad spectrum PN ABs

30

Cause - nutritional diarrhoea - 2

change of diet
overingestion of milk (replacer)

31

What are clinical signs of diarrhoea in adult horse? 2

Hypovolaemia and endotoxaemia

32

4 clinical syndromes of adult horse salmonellosis. commonest?

1. inapparent infection
2. depression, fever, anorexia without diarrhoea or colic
3. diarrhoea (COMMONEST)
4. sepsis with or without diarrhoea

33

Clostridia are a normal flora component of horse and foal. Why do they sometimes cause disease? 2

Overgrwoth of organism
Toxin (enterotoxin, cytotoxin)

34

Treatment - adult clostridial diarrhoea - 3

-Supportive
-Metronidazole
-Di-tri-octahedral smectite (Biosponge) binds clostridial toxins

35

Clinical signs of antimicrcobial-associated diarrhoea

Mild self limiting diarrhoea to per-acute colitis

36

Treatment - antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea

Discontinue antimicrobials if possible, change drug/route of administration if still necessary, metronidazole, biosponge

37

What causes disease in larval cyathostominosis

Small strongyles (cyathostomins) encysted L4 in large colon wall causes idsease

38

Epidemiology - larval cyathostominosis - 3

Young horses,
November to March
recent anthelmintic treatment

39

Clinical signs - larval cyathostominosis 4

Dramatic weight loss, profuse diarrhoea, ventral oedema +/- fever

40

Diagnosis- larval cyathostominosis 4

larvae in faeces, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminaemia, high beta globulin concentration

41

Treatment - larval cyathostominosis 4

ivermectin - no efficacy against larval stages
moxidectin - variable efficacy
fenbendazole - resistnace in SE UK
+/- corticosteroids

42

Prognosis -- larval cyathostominosis

poor if clinical signs present (30-40% recover)
treating other horses on same pasture may be indicated

43

Another name for NSAID toxicity

Right dorsal colitis

44

NSAID toxicity - diagnosis

history, hypoalbuminaemia, thick RDC on ultrasound, concurrent renal and gastric disease

45

Prognosis of NSAID toxicity

May take many months to heal. stricture formation may occur.

46

How do you go about calculating fluid therapy?

estimate % dehydration/hypovolaemia (clinical signs, haematology and serum chemistry)
PE findings not as consistent in foals

47

6 changed on haematology and serum chemistry indicating HYPOVOLAEMIA

increased PCV
increased lactate conc
increased TP (may be low because of colon loss)
high USG
increaced creatinine/urea conc.

48

define tacky mucous membranes

not fully dry and retaining a slightly sticky feel. between moist and dry

49

Fluid choices to give -2 (examples)

CRYSTALLOIDSs - isotonic polyionic solutions, hypertonic saline
COLLOIDS - plasma (provides CFs), synthetic types etc pentastarch

50

How to treat endotoxaemia

Treat primary disease - polymixin B, plasma/serum products, flunixin meglumine, pentoxifylline (anti-TNF activity thus limits cytokine production initiated affter endotoxin interacts with cells).