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Flashcards in Small ruminant P & P (Maunsell) Deck (92):
1

Outline

  1. small ruminant production
  2. smal ruminant veterinary practice
  3. health management and Prev. Med
  4. Overview of important/common production limited dz

2

percent of worlds goats that live in developing countries

96%

3

world wide there are more goats than

cattle

4

Use of goats

  • meat
  • fiber: cashmere, mohair/angora
  • dairy: milk and cheese
  • skins: leather, clothing
  • specialty
    • pets and companions
    • brush/weed control
    • pack/draft
    • scientific

5

goats in US in 2012

  • 2.7 million
    • mostly meat: Boer

6

meat breeds

  • Boer
  • Spanish
  • Kiko

7

Pet goat breeds

  • fainting
  • pygmy

8

Fainting goats

  • Cl channel defect
  • physical activity, auditory, visual stimuli
  • autosomal dominant, not obvious at birth
  • No treatment

9

Fiber breeds

  • Angora
    • mohair
    • meat
  • Other
    • produce cashmere (this is not a breed)

10

common dairy goat breeds

  • alpine
  • La mancha
  • nubian
  • oberhasli
  • saanen
  • toggenburg

11

Sheep worldwide

  • 1.2 billion
    • largest in China, Australia, India, Iran

12

Uses for sheep

 

  • Fiber: wool for clothing, carpet
  • meat
  • dairy: cheese
  • skins: leather, clothing, rugs
  • specialty: scientific

13

Number sheep in US in 2012

  • 5.4 million
    • mostly in west
  • 80% for meat some fiber
    • grain or grass-finishing
    • hair sheep fasting growing segment of US industry
  • veterinary services not widely used by US sheep producers

14

Common sheep breeds in US

  • Cheviot
  • Dorset
  • Hampshire
  • Southdown
  • Suffolk
  • Texel
  • Tunis

15

Common fine-wool breeds

  • merina
  • Rambouillet

16

Common long-wool sheep breeds

  • border Leicester
  • romney

17

Dual purpose sheep breeds

  • Corriedale

18

Dairy sheep breeds

  • East friesian
  • Lacaune

19

Hair sheep breeds in US

  • originated from hot environments
  • no need to shear
  • many non-seasonal breeders
  • common breeds
    • dorper
    • katahdin
    • royal white
    • st. croix
    • barbados blackbelly
    • american blackbelly

20

Small ruminat dairy regulatory standards

  • somatic cell count
    • higher normal SCC than cow milk (cows: most sold at less than 450 million)
    • legal limit 1 x 106 cells
  • standard plate count (total aerobic bact count)
    • same as for cow milk
    • legal limit 100,000 cells/m
    • reasonable goal is < 5,000 cells/ml

21

Raw milk consumption

  • milk, cream, yogurt & ice cream
    • butter and cheese not considered raw b/c of processing
  • sale of raw milk for human consumption illegal in some states (FL)
    • some states allow in circumstances
  • consumption of raw milk widespread
  • most raw small ruminant milk and milk products high quality
    • be aware of zoonotic dz risks associated with raw milk consumption
    • sub-clinical fungal mastitis - don't drink this milk

22

Zoonoses related to raw milk consumption

  • risk foodborne dz from raw milk products 150 x higher than if you don't consume raw products
  • zoonoses
    • campylobacter jejuni
    • Q fever outbreak (mostly from contact tho)
      • washington
      • oregon
      • montana
    • Listeriosis
  • 5.2 outbreaks zoonoses per year
    • children/teenagers
    • immunocompromised
  • Serious issue in countries with Brucella melitensis: there is a vaccine

23

true/fals

There are more goats worldwide than cattle?

True

24

True/false

Boer, Spanish and Kiko are popular meat goat breeds in US?

True

25

true/false

Small ruminant milk typically  has a lower somatic cell count than cow milk

false

26

true/false

Meat and wool production are most common uses of sheep in US>

true

27

Distinguishing sheep from goats

  • Sheep
    • tail always hangs down
    • never beard or wattles
    • More distinct upper lip divided by distinct philtrum
  • Goats
    • many are horned
    • tail usually erect
    • beards, wattles

28

Goat behavoir

  • > 50% time browsing (prefer
  • picky eaters, but will try things
  • climb, rocky elevated locations
  • antagonistic behavoir: sideways hooking motion
  • fighting: rear on hind legs
  • alarm signal: high pitched neeze
  • curious, not as easily frightened as sheep
  • newborns: 'lying out' will freeze some distance from mother

29

Behavoir of sheep

  • Grazers: monotonous diet
  • Grasslands, not climbers
  • antagonistic behavoir: butt head on
  • fighting: butt head on
  • alarm signal: snort and stamp one forefoot, compact bunch
  • when frightened: run in flock
  • stress results from isolation/unfamiliarity
  • newborns: 'lying in' remain close to mom

30

Moving sheep

  • move better around corners and up hills
  • prefer well-lighted areas
  • respond well to herding dogs
  • be away of crushing in corners of confined spaces
  • sheep: make move in group

31

Individual restrain

  • standing one hand under mandible and other holding tail
  • Goats can be restrained at BASE of horn not tip (torquing)
  • Sheep can bbe sat on rump
  • can be trained to halter

32

Moving

  • Move in groups
  • don't overcrowd
  • avoid transport
    • pregnant ewes/does in last 4-6 weeks gestation
  • heat and cold stress considerations

33

PE

SIck/from normal

  • Look from distance
    • animal may be listless, not eating when others are
    • poorer body condition
    • lagging behind group
    • resting/walking on knees

34

PE

special considerations rams

  • check sinuses: tap on sinuses, can listen with stethascope
  • feel for air out of nostril
  • funky smell
  • teeth

35

body weight

  • weight tapes
    • dairy animals
    • meat animals
  • record weights when giving meds for DOSING!

36

BCS

  • BCS 1: spine prominant and sharp, transverse process sharp
  • BCS 3: Spine rounded and smooth, transverse process smooth and rounded
    • ​IDEAL
  • BCS 5: Spine not detectable fat dimple over space, r

37

Estimating age of sheep and goats

  • < 1 yr old: no permanent teeth
  • 1 yr old: 2 permanent teeth
  • 2 yr old: 4 permanent teeth
  • 3 yr old: 6 permanent teeth
  • 4 yr old: 8 permanent teeth
  • > 4 yrs old: worn permanent teeth

38

Drug use in Small ruminants

  • few approved FDA drugs
  • extra-label permitted only when animal's health threatened or animal is suffering
    • not allowed if will cause residue
    • requires valid VCPR
    • restricts use by laypeople
    • permits admin via water
    • disallows in or on fee

39

Nutrition

  • Water: clean, fresh, sensitive, 3.5-15 liters/day, doubles in pregnancy/lactation
  • Feeding systems
    • appropriate mineral supplement
    • BCS 2.5-3
    • no more than 1 pound grain a day

40

Nutrition

Breeding males

  • enter season close to a 4
    • lose about 10% BW during breeding season
  • 1-2 lbs per grain before season/or pasture equivalent 4-6 weeks before breeding season
  • other wise maintenance level feed

41

Nutrition

adult females

  • should be in BCS 2.5-3 at breeding
  • early gestation: build/maintain BCS 3-3.5
    • can maintain on pasture/range or mod quality hay
  • late gestation (last 6 weeks) 70-80% fetal growth
    • Ewes: 2-2.5 pounds cereal grain
    • Does: 1-2 lb concentrate
  • Lactation: peak milk prod 2-3 weeks post-partum
    • 0.5-1 pound concentrate/4 lb milk
      • fed as TMR or after hay to avoid acidosis

42

Feeding kids and lambs

Newborns

  • Colostrum: 10% bw in first 12h (4-6 hours)
  • 3d-6weeks: 15-20% of bw milk
    • make sure if milk replacer it is small ruminant, not cow
  • 3 weeks: start to eat significant amt of solid feed

43

Nutrition: kids and lambs

  • creep feed
    • kids and lambs can reach, but not adults
    • accelerates rumin development
    • start at 1-2 weeks of age
    • include a coccidiostat

44

Nutrition: finishing (weaning to market)

  • feedlots: avoid rumen acidosis
    • 10% roughage
    • include rumen buffers
    • avoid sudden dietary changes

45

Toxic plants

don't see a ton of toxicity

-usually only in starving animals

46

true/false

Pet sheep and goats tend to become obese and should be limit fed to maintain BCS of 2.5 to 3.0 out of 5.

true

47

true/false

Sheep prefer to obtain 80% of diet by browsing and about 20% by grazing.

false

48

true/false

Urine acidifiers are often used in diets of pet wethers to help prevent urolithiasis.

true

49

true/false

Ewes and does typically require supplemental feeding in late gestation, particularly when carrying multiple fetuses.

true

50

true/false

To avoid rumen acidosis when feeding large amounts of grain, it should be fed as part of a TMR or following hay feeding.

true

51

Repro management

  • puberty varies
    • 5-12 months old
  • first breeding at 70% mature size
  • reproductive rate
    • # offspring per female exposed for breeding

52

Repro seasonality in ewes and does

  • seasonally poly-estrus: short day breeders
    • melatonin
    • shortening day length
  • affected by many factors
  • induction of cyclicity by abrupt intro of male
    • Whitten Effect: early start on breeding season

53

Breeding

  • Heat
    • does: flagging, vocalizing, mounting
  • Bucks - smelly to handle during rut
    • urine spraying, inc scent gland activity
    • smell attracts female, helps trigger estrus
  • most is natural service
    • AI based on heat detection or timed AI

54

Pregnancy dx in ewes and does

  • progesterone
    • diagnosing non-preg by low progesterone > 5 days post breeding
  • preg-specific protein b
  • ultrasound: 45-90 days
    • any later you cant count multiples

55

Scrapie ear tags

  • required for sheep and goats > 1 yr of age moving via interstate commerce

56

Disbudding goat kids

  • most goat breeds:
    • 5-7 days does
    • 3-5 days bucks
    • nubian, pygmy, angora: 10-14 days
  • restraint, sedation
    • zylazine/ketamine/butorphanol
    • gas anesthesia
  • local nerve block
    • be careful with lidocaine doses
      • dilute 2% lidocaine to 0.5% with sterile water
      • inject 1 ml over each 4 nerves

57

DIsbudding

  • clip hair over bud
  • heat cautery iron to destroy horn corium
    • apply for 10 seconds
    • better than caustic paste
  • older goats
    • small barnes calf dehorner up to 6 weeks of age
    • surgical dehorning under general anesthesia

58

Descenting

  • usually removed with disbudding in horned males
    • may be sx removed
  • males castrated before 7.5 months don't develop the gland

59

true/false

If male kids are castrated prior to puberty, the scent glands on the head do not mature.

True

60

true/false

Goat kids should generally be disbudded in the first week of life, except Nubian, Pygmy and Angora kids at 10-14 days.

true

61

true/false

To disbud kids, an electric dehorning iron should be applied to bud for 60 seconds.

false (max 10 seconds)

62

true/false

lidocaine should typically be diluted to 0.5% prior to use for disbudding goat kids.

true

63

Castration

  • elastrator bands may predispose to tetanus
  • burdizzo: closed castration by crushing spermaticord
    • also may predispose to tetanus
  • surgical
  • lidocaine, NSAIDS
  • 70% ram lambs castrated in US
  • Older male
    • surgical with deep sedation and local blocks

64

castration timing

  • best done 4-14 days unless to be pets (urolithiasis)
    • pets do at 6-8 weeks old esp in pygmies or mini breeds

65

Tail docking of lambs

  • common for wool breeds
    • prevents manure build up
  • best at > 24hrs to 7 days of age
    • must be before 6 weeks old
  • length
    • should cover vulva
      • if too short predisposes to rectal prolapse and perineal neoplasia
    • Must be longer than caudal tail fold

66

Hoof care

  • trim twice yearly
  • manual or air compression driven shears

67

Preventative health

  • targeted parasite control
  • vaccination schedules
  • time periods
    • weaning to breeding
    • maintenance
    • late gestation
    • lactating
    • rams and bucks
    • pets (Clostridium CDT)

68

Nematode parasites

  • Haemonchus
    • H. contortus most sig with respect to clinical dz and resistance in SE USA
  • Ostertagia
    • problem in temperate climates
  • Trichostrongylus
  • inc susceptibility:
    • overcrowding, overgrazing, malnutrition, poor quality pasture

69

FAMACHA

  • treat 4s and 5s
  • check every 3-4 weeks
  • cull animals requiring many txs

70

Controlling internal parasites

  • dont feed on ground, clean waterers
  • pasture management
    • don't overstock
    • rest pastures (2-6 months)
    • treated animals should go onto contaminated pastures or mixed with untreated animals
    • supplement feed if pastures is stressed
  • multi-species grazing
  • tannin rich forage
  • quarantine new arrivals
  • genetic selection for parasite-resistant populations

71

Routine vaccinations

  • clostridium perfringens C, D
  • Tetanus
  • contagious ecthyma (orf) if a prolem in herd

72

other vaccine

  • if dam vaccination
    • vaccinate babies at 10 wks, booster 2-4 weeks later
  • if dam not vaccinated
    • vaccinate at 4 weeks, booster 2-4 weeks later
    • use antitoxin if needed for additional interim protection

73

non-routine vaccines

  • 7 or 8 way clostridial vaccines
  • rabies
  • intranasal P13
  • Respiratory syncitial virus
  • abortion dzs
  • footrot
  • caseous lymphadenitis
  • enterotoxogenic E. Coli

74

care neonates

  • colostrum
    • if > 24 hours: plasma transfusion
  • dip naval
  • assisst at first nursing
  • inject with vit E/selenium in Se-deficient areas
    • including Florida

75

5 Cs of lamb/kid raising

  1. colostrum
  2. calories
  3. cleanliness
  4. comfort
  5. consistency

76

predation

  • Lamas
  • guard dogs
  • donkeys

77

Contagious ecthyma

  • parapox virus (sore mouth, orf)
  • signs
    • blisters mouth, teats
  • prognosis: good, self-limiting
  • prevention: vaccination (use a scab)
  • zoonotic: use gloves

78

external parasites

  • lice (bloodsucking and biting, sheep/goat specific)
  • mites (sarcoptic, chorioptic, psorptic and demodectic mange)
    • skin scrapings

79

Caseous lymphadenitis

  • corynebacterium pseudotuburculosis
  • lymph node abcess
  • prog: recovery is rare
  • prevention: sanitation, cull
  • TX: drain or sx
  • prevention: quarantine/sanitize, make shearers sanitize equiptment

80

polyarthritis

  • mycoplasma, chlamydia pecorum
  • usually yount animals
  • prognosis: poor
  • prevention: maintain closed herd
  • tx: oxytetracycline 5 days

81

foot rot

  • dichelobacter nodosus (foot) + Fusobacterium necrophorum (soil)
  • severe lameness, foul odor
  • prognosis: animals can be carriers
  • prevention: foot trimming and food baths, cull chronics
  • dz can be eradicated

82

Scrapie

  • prion dz
  • 1-5 yrs old, pruritis, bruxism, CNS
  • fatal and irreversible
  • reportable dz

83

Tetanus

  • clostridium tetani
  • CS same as other spp
  • prog: poor
  • tx: vaccination, antitoxin after wounds/high risk procedures

84

Coccidiosis

  • imp prob in small ruminants (several species)
  • dz around weaning, and feedlot lambs
  • diarrhea, tenesmus possible, bloody mucus, weight loss
  • amprolium or sulfa drugs
  • animals will never reach their potential

85

Blue tongue

  • orbivirus
  • can be severe in fl
  • mostly sheep for clinical dz
  • spread by flies
  • fever, sudden death, erosions on lips/gums/tongues
  • prog: poor
  • vaccination only in cali
  • reduce exposure
  • supportive care only tx

86

pregnancy toxemia

  • often fatal, caused by negative energy balance
  • hypoglycemia, inc fat catabolism, ketones, CNS signs
  • indications for c-sections
  • can induce parturtition, IV dextrose
  • Prevention: high plane nutrition last 2 months gestation

87

Name the dz:

Weight loss and ill thrift in mature animals.

Paratuberculosis

88

name the dz:

Chronic, progressive pruritis

scrapie

89

name the orgnism:

Caseous lymphadenitis

corynebacterium ovis

90

name the dz:

Diarrhea in post-weaning lambs and kids

coccidiosis

91

name the dz:

Often concurrent cases of arthritis

Mycoplasmal pneumonia

92

name the dz:

Feed a diet with a calcium:phosphorous ratio of at 2:1

Urolithiasis