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Flashcards in Soc 100 - Politics Deck (54)
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1

Reformist Ideologies

Call for smaller changes to the degree of inequality without challenging basic ground rules.Aka wants changes but not a whole upheaval of the system

2

Radical Ideologies

Want to upturn the dominant ideologyThe NDP were founded on this principle, to wipe out capitalism and put into program socialized planning.

3

Counter Ideologies

Anything counter to the dominant ideology.Could be either reformist or radical.

4

Intelligentsia

Intellectuals and other highly educated in the society

5

False Consciousness

Dominant ideologies promote this, a view of world that's out of sync with objective realitye.g. capitalist society may blame workers for their own unemploymentin feudal, blame peasants for sin and disobediencein patriarchal, blame women for signs of insubordination or licentiousness (immorality, sexual unrestraint)

6

Civil liberties vs civil rights

liberties: freedoms that protect the individual against govt, like freedom of speech, assembly, press, and movementrights: rights people deserve under all circumstances, without regard to race, age, ethnicity, sex, whatever

7

Culture

the shared social beliefs and presuppositions we all draw on every day; our values and assumptions.

8

Roles and Identities

the way we express our individuality through socially-defined roles and beliefs.

9

Socialisation

processes by which children are prepared for membership in society; development of the self.

10

Power

Ability to achieve your goals even when people oppose you.might include pure force.Power includes all times you get your own way: could include force or coercion, or economic power�

11

Domination (Authority)

“The probability that a command… will be obeyed by a given group of persons.” when people choose to follow someone else: they think it’s right to obey.

12

What are reasons one would obey orders?

We may calculate some kind of advantage in obeying. We may feel the commander is a legitimate authority. We may just be accustomed to obeying this person�.

13

Three types of authority: you know these...

Rational-Legal Authority/from legal, rational processTraditional Authority.Tradition makes this person the authority (e.g. monarch); he/she can also designate officials to do things, whose authority thus stems from tradition..Like King Louie, people think they have authority of god so don't challengeCharismatic Authority.from inspiration, can be good or bad

14

What is Value-Neutral?

we don’t want to judge the values of others in interpreting their decision to obey.

15

Rational Motive

what people think they're doing, and why

16

Political Sociology

Empirical study of the way social & economic factors affect the operation of power.May include quantitative analysis, but also qualitative accounts of ideology, beliefs, values insofar as they affect voting.

17

Difference between poli sci and poli soc

Political scientists are often more interested in political institutions: how do governments work? How are elections carried out? What happens in Ottawa? �Political sociologists look more at the ways socio-economic factors influence votes; they examine broad political cultures, ideologies; they look at power throughout society.

18

What might some sociologists use to predict what you want and how you vote?

An objective social position, like economic class.Would determine your interest and politics

19

When analyzing society according to more factors than economic class, like beliefs, values, ethnicity, gender, e.g., we find...

different ‘blocs’ with more specific interests.Stan Greenberg identified ‘Reagan Democrats’: economically disadvantaged but culturally-conservative white voters in Detroit who chose Republican Ronald Reagan in 1980s.We also hear of ‘Soccer Moms’ – a busy, suburban, middle-class woman who often balances family & work.These groups are often ‘swing voters’ – understanding their situation helps parties win their votes!

20

What background do american voters take on healthcare that is very different from similar countries?

Public healthcare seen as violation of constitutional rights and imposition on liberty, for example.

21

What two distinct values does political US discourse have and who examined this?

Seymour Martin Lipsetpolitical equality (all have same rights) and achievement (each should be free to pursue own happiness).�

22

How do countries similar to the US value equality?

US valued such equality most (UK least egalitarian; Canada somewhere in between).

23

What kind equality are Americans concerned with?

Americans more concerned with equality of opportunity; others more concerned with equality of outcome.

24

What were the origins of the modern American state? Who examined these to explain US political culture?

Seymour Martin LipsetUS origins in revolution and civil warSimilar countries have more peaceful origins

25

Political Culture

Broad set of beliefs and values generally held in any one country or political entity.May be seen in the sort of values politicians appeal to in their speeches.

26

What do politicians often refer to in their speeches, that they think they have in common with the majority of their electorate?

Politicians often refer to certain key values in their speech, which they think are shared by the majority of their electorate – but these messages often vary from country to country. American politicians often refer to values of ‘freedom’ or ‘liberty,’ more than most other Western countries�.

27

In the relationship between industrialization and the future government of a nation, what affected how societies turned out the most? Who discovered this?

Barrington MooreMoore discovered that the class of the dominant group affected how societies turned out:Strong traditional ruling class often produced fascist govts.Large peasant class often led to authoritarian communism.Strong commercial bourgeoisie produced lively public sphere and liberal-democratic politics�.

28

Propaganda

Simple messages aimed at convincing masses to support a party or leader.Often consists of quite direct messages about the state of the world.

29

Control of state apparatus facilitates propaganda how?

opportunity to transmit these ideas more effectively.Totalitarian regimes often organise big public events to celebrate themselves, or control tv/radio.

30

Why is propaganda's usual simplicity counter-productive?

Whilst some people are convinced, the very crudeness of these messages is often counterproductive: it’s easy to mock.