Flashcards in Anth 101 - Complex Societies Deck (29)
What are the four categories of societies?
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States.scale of complexity, NOT progress
Where were egalitarian social relations seen? What does this mean?
Early farming and herding societies.no big diffs in wealth, prestige or power
As social complexity increases, social organization became?
Stratifiedincreasing differences in access to wealth, prestige, or power.control of surplus production by a few individuals becomes evident
Complex societies have...
.large populations.extensive division of labor.occupational specialization.social stratification.class ranked hierarchically, defined by wealth or occupation
How recognize complex societies?
.Monumental architecture, e.g. Pyramids (sophisticated, organized effort).Elaborate burials (ppl treated in death as in life).occupational specialization.regional settlement hierarchies, think of a province, cities, leading to towns/villages/hamlets and farms, all contributing to maintain the whole.cities need the support of smaller communities to sustain themselves
Prime Movers (drivers of complexity)
.Domestication, gave people free time to invent complex social rules.Irrigation needs in dry areas, required bureaucracy to develop and manage complex canal systems.population pressure from growing populations, need for leaders.social conflict within societies
Prime movers rely on....
Unicausal or single cause factors
NO SLIDE 14-16 on W7b!
Until 10kya humans and hominin ancestors all lived as....
gatherers and hunters living in bands
what spurred changes to humans hunter-gatherer methods 10kya?
glacier's retreated and earth's changing climate created new ecological settings
Which geologic era begins 10kya?
When organism actively changes its environment or moves to new environment
Why is domestication a form of niche construction?
.reproduction of species altered by human action.human action changes local environmental settings
how was wheat domesticated, or how did it change?
.tougher connections via their RACHIS to their cereal shafts.larger kernel size and increased # of kernels
What did domestication lead to as far as human movement patterns?
Sedentism, or settling in one location
indicators of animal domestication
.animals outside their natural range.physical changes in animal shape and size.abrupt increase in animal numbers in one location.increased # of males killed for meat (females kept cause could make milk and fur and other goods)
What are the three models over a spectrum of animal domestication?
Hunting, Herding, to Farming
.theory of domestication.directly related to climate change.resources more available, populations grew.so foraging and gathering from MULTIPLE sources.stress put on resources, leading to domestication
.theory of domestication.feasting increases demand, land use increases.food production necessary to meet demands of feasting.feasting done to show dominance.this theory is dumb ok
Middle East, crescent where domestication first sprung up
complex hunter-gatherers in far east that developed farming.12.5-10kya.settled into villages.intensively exploited wild resources.social stratification increased.environmental changes led to domestication
Which of the following plants is not a new world domesticate?
A: Maize (corn)B: SquashC: PotatoesD: PeppersE: Wheat�it's corn
Domestication occurred independently in which three areas of the americas? What did they domesticate?
mesoamerica.corn and squashsouth america.manioc, potatoes, beans, quinoa, llamaseastern us.goosefoot, marsh elder, sunflowers, squash
What were the consequences of food production?
New technologies: pottery, architecture, groundstone, trade.population increase.spread of disease (urbanization).increased economic productivity.changing attitudes, social complexity
Don't have slide 19 guns germs steel
.1500-millions pop..hi level of administration.royalty and other forms of status.writing systems.taxes and tribute.specialized govt.organized military
.ascribed status and rank.some individuals w power.500-1500 ppl.some specialization.socially stratified society
.mostly egalitarian.even access to wealth.hunter-gatherers.hi mobility.labor by age and/or sex