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Flashcards in Soc 100 - Race Deck (58):
1

Race vs Ethnicity. Described by both?

Race usually defined above all by ‘biological’ features, e.g. similarity of skin colour, which can be inherited.�
Ethnicity: is broader, more cultural.
-People may be described by both racial & ethnic categorisations: one may be ethnically German and racially ‘Caucasian.’

2

Scientific Racism

Term describes series of theories from mid-19th century till 1945 that claimed to provide a ‘scientific’ basis in biology that ‘proved’ superiority of a particular racial group.

3

How does Comte Arthur de Gobineau’s Essay on the Inequality of Human Races �try to explain human history?

in terms of supposed innate characteristics of different groups.
Before 19th century, concept of biological race unknown.

4

The Bell Curve

Book published in 1994 by Herrnstein and Murray; argued that lower scores on standardised IQ tests by African-Americans than Caucasians in the US indicates genetic and racial basis for intelligence.

5

Why Bell Curve rejected?

Systematic study by American Psychological Association: no evidence supporting link between intelligence and race.
No differences in intelligence between races measured at early age: differences only appear later, suggesting social influence.
Study only compares within US, not in global perspective: may be explained by socioeconomic position, not race.

6

85% of human genetic diversity can be found within ‘races’ �E.G.?

there may be more genetic difference between two random Cambodians than between a Cambodian and a Norwegian.

7

Social construction of race

Description of the way societies develop ideas of biological ‘race.’
Points to shifting definitions of races, and impossibility of drawing exact boundaries.

8

Under slavery in the US, ‘one-drop rule’ defined people as ‘black’ if ...

...they had even one non-white ancestor. Today, Obama is the ‘first black President’ – with a white mother.

9

Visible Minority

Minority group in society whose differences from mainstream are immediately obvious, and often stigmatised – e.g. different skin colour is visible; homosexuality is not.

10

Passing

changing names to obscure racial origins, if no other visible differences (see Lecture 3).

11

Racialization

Unnecessary use of ‘racial’ characteristics to distinguish people.
Attempt to impose ‘racial’ interpretations on an issue with no basis in it.

12

Why Racism: St Fu

Ethnic identity provides sense of community and boosts solidarity.
Exclusion and prejudice may help stratify society in way that ensures all jobs get filled.

13

Why Racism: Crit

Dominant ‘races ‘try to exclude others from share of social wealth
Marxists suggest racism may be result of strategies by bourgeoisie to split proletariat.

14

Why Racism: Symbolic Interactionists

Racial differences become self-fulfilling prophecy as people act on prejudices they are exposed to.
People may be ‘socialised’ into what it means to be in group.

15

Why Racism: Structural Theory

Structures can be identified at all levels of society that automatically stream people into specific paths, e.g. schools pushing women & visible minorities to lower jobs.

16

Institutional Racism

Systems, rules, practices with disproportionate effect on specific ethnic groups.
May or may not be deliberately targeted at these groups; may be insensitive to differences.

17

Modern Examples of Racialised Practices

Racial profiling: police will stop and search non-white citizens far more than whites; seen in airport security, for example.
Rules on speaking English or on accepted dress may affect minorities disproportionately (e.g. banning headscarves).

18

Prejudice vs Discrimination

Prejudice: Negative beliefs
Discrimination: The actual act

19

Are Emily & Greg more employable than Lakisha & Jamal?� Outcomes?

Bertrand & Mullainathan� (2003) sent identical CVs to a number of randomly-selected job adverts, different only in names at the top.
CVs with ‘white’ names received 50% more callbacks than with ‘black’ names: prejudice & discrimination linked.

20

Social Distance.

Way of measuring how far people are willing to mix with members of other groups, and how far particular groups are excluded from majority of society.

21

Who developed a Social Distance scale? How work? Who is most excluded? What kind of communities like to exclude outsiders?

Emory S. Bogardus developed seven-step scale of distance, and asked people if they would be willing to have member of another group in this position. Scale from (1) Close relative by marriage to (7) total exclusion from your country.
If accepted at level 1, usually accepted at all levels below.
E.g. “Would you be willing to have an Englishman marry your daughter? Live in the same street? Work in same trade?”
Higher scores = greater social distance = greater exclusion.
-Small, isolated communities particularly likely to want to exclude outsiders and increase social distance; large urban areas show greater tolerance and smallest distance score.
�-Romany/Gypsies subject to particular levels of intolerance; they are excluded almost everywhere, with universal prejudice.

22

What recommendations came out of Karl Gunnar Myrdal's report, American Dilemma: The Negro Problem & Modern Democracy (1938) ?

Myrdal highlights how white majority applied double standards:
Despite doctrine of equality in US constitution, African-Americans treated as less-than-equal even after end of slavery Continued assumption of African-American inferiority; some defenders of slavery argued slaves “not ready for freedom.”
Myrdal suggests only serious government intervention could overcome racist attitudes: need to improve minority access to education, housing, job security, with federal government backing.
Even today, African-Americans first to suffer in crisis.
Myrdal insisted on activist sociology: impossibility of impartiality, so we should recognise bias and work towards valuable goals.

23

What makes people unaware of the problem of race?

absence of obstacles.
White people rarely made conscious of race because they never run up prejudice from others.
‘White’ is thus treated as ‘normal’ – because it’s never subject of questioning, its privilege is hidden to those who enjoy it.
�-think of wheelchair analogy

24

Double Consciousness

Visible minorities have two identities: member of nation (“Canadian”, “American”) but also ethnic group (“African-American”).
Thus view selves through eyes of others�
- whilst white Americans were just ‘Americans,’ black Americans were ‘African-American’ – both black and American.

25

Black Skin, White Masks by Frantz Fanon. How still seen today in Africa?

-extreme pressure to conform to values of dominant groups�
-Fanon was black citizen of French colony of Martinique, and experienced European racism firsthand.
Describes the way fellow Martiniquaises tried to adopt French culture, French pronunciation, French style etc – and yet still faced prejudice from French people.
Leads to existential failure to develop own sense of self�
-Practical evidence of this seen in beauty products: high sales of skin-whitening creams or hair-straightening products. in Africa, India, African-American areas. Pressure to ‘look white.’

26

Stereotype Threat. How affects academics?

Effect of widespread social stereotypes about one’s group on behaviour and performance.
Stereotypes may result in increased anxiety due to fear of being judged by ethnic/gender group.
�-When black students were reminded of broad myths about African-American academic performance, they were often extra-anxious, and performed significantly worse on tests than if they were not cued up.
Similar responses seen in gendered groups too.

27

How does Adam Smith recommend countries with needs for labour do in regards to immigrants?

Adam Smith (founder of economics) advocates free movement of labour in the name of economic efficiency.
Ensures labour supply can be kept up where it’s most needed; controls on migration stifle economic growth.

28

What were reasons Polish Peasants migrated according to William Thomas and Florian Znaniecki?

Macrosocial changes of industrialisation and political turmoil as restored state of Poland replaced Russian & German rule led to difficult situations.
Breakdown of traditional ways of life based on agriculture, small villages, traditions.
-Difficult situation at home prompted need to move.

29

What kinds of challenges do new immigrants have to face? What does this help explain?

Adaptation to new customs, mores, ways of life.
Immigrants usually introduced to low-status jobs, due to non-recognition of foreign credentials or lack of social capital
Caught between two world as “marginal men” (Robert Park), belonging neither to old world nor to new.
Explains significant problems of delinquency, poverty, isolation, and illness often faced by members of immigrant communities.

30

What did Head Taxes do for white working classes and unions?

defence of their limited economic position: closure.

31

Largest number of immigrants in Canada come from? Where do most of them move to in Canada?

India and China. Ontario followed by Quebec.

32

How does Canada filter through immigrant applications? How does this contribute to skill drain?

Immigrants to Canada today given point rating, based on age, education, work, and language ability (but not ethnicity).
Rich countries now harvest high-skill workers from less prosperous areas, resulting in drain of skills.
Around 50% of Canadian immigrants are skilled workers.

33

Ethnic Enclave

Concentration of people from one particular group in a specific area of town, e.g. ‘Little Italy.’
Often show institutional completeness: complete provision of services, shops for one community.

34

What did Chicago School notice about these ethnic enclaves and how they emerge in ecology of city?

Notes the way these areas often treated as lower status, marked by lower-quality housing, exclusion etc.

35

Diaspora.

Refers to the global dispersion of immigrants of particular origin, e.g. ‘the Greek diaspora.’
Often constitutes diasporic network of contacts linked across the world.

36

How do Diasporic networks help migrants. How do they help the home country?

Diasporic networks help migrants moving to new countries: provide source of jobs, initial accommodation, as well as preserving ties to home cultures.
Often major source of economic growth for home country through remittances: migrants may move for higher wages in industrialised country, but send majority of their pay back to families, thus stimulating economic growth.

37

Racial / Ethnic Socialisation

Members of a particular immigrant community may make particular efforts to preserve the cultures and norms of their country of origin: may even be an exaggerated version!
Sometimes this is in response to ethnic slurs or insults hurled at immigrants: response is to exaggerate stigmatised traits.

38

Interculturalism

Some critics of multiculturalism argue that it leads to fragmented society with no basis of shared values.
They claim it risks losing any sense of national identity.
Alternative policy of interculturalism emphasises one shared culture
-Quebec tries this, preserves local culture in a broader state by assimilating newcomers

39

National Minority

Distinct group with recognisable claim to be autonomous and have own rights as group.
Particularly refers to First Nations in Canada.

40

How is Multiculturalism sometimes criticised by Canadian Aboriginals?

for ignoring particular claims to recognition as original settlers of the land, and specific problems arising from colonialism

41

How does Will Kymlicka suggest we solve the problem of rights of national minorities?

we should recognise the rights of group to some degree of self-rule, in addition to the rights of individual members.
Includes support for own systems of justice, e.g. based on collective rights, or land claim settlements.
-Individual rights vs Collective rights

42

Imagined Community

-A 'people'
Social, ethnic, or racial grouping that is treated as a distinct, real ‘thing’, like a nation, by its members.
May increase ‘acting out’ cultural identity.

43

How did Benedict Anderson think imagined communities first arose? Are they real?

-describes emergence of idea of nation in anticolonial struggles: he notes how certain cultural features were emphasised, as people imagined a shared group identity.
-maybe no basis in reality, but if they are treated as real, they become real in society.

44

People vs Nation vs State

People: Group united by shared culture, language, norms.
Nation: Self-identified people, often occupying specific territory
State: Political institutions ruling over a certain area and people(s).

45

How are States not necessarily tied to specific peoples or nations?

an imperial state may rule over multiple peoples (but not nations).

46

Nation-State

Cultural or ethnic group with own political institutions based on region of supposed homogeneity, e.g. of language, belief, ‘blood’ etc.
Dominant sociopolitical idea of modern world.

47

Westphalian System

WHAT? Slide 2h, Race2

48

Causes of Globalization? Effects? (2)

Causes:
Global free trade areas break down borders.
Efficient production; cheaper products; economic growth.
Effects:
This reduces autonomy of individual states: more at the mercy of global economic trends, and changes in whole system.
Leads to cultural homogenisation: different areas become more similar as entertainment products are spread widely.

49

Imperialism

Extension of European economic hegemony into direct political control from Europe.
Primarily 19th & early 20th century: leads to European exploitation of other regions.

50

What does Modern globalization have it's roots in? Describe.

roots in emergence of capitalism in 16th century Europe: creates large surpluses, population growth.
Leads to new trade routes, growing commercial interest in other regions, and increasing investment.

51

White Man's Burden. Implies?

Semi-sarcastic term to describe ideology of imperialism: refers to belief that Europeans were most ‘civilized,’ so had duty to bring ‘benefits’ of modernity to rest of world.
-Hierarchy of progress, single road to modernity, europeans ahead, other regions backwards, even savages

52

World Systems Theory

Extension of social theory to cover globe.
Explains stratification by looking at relations between wealthier and poorer regions.
Parts have role in global division of labour.

53

What does Immanuel Wallerstein's Modern World System say about understanding a single nation? Historically? In modern times in terms of the world?

We can never understand any single nation endogenously, i.e. as entirely self-contained system: its own structure is defined by its position within broader self-contained systems.
-Historically, relatively self-contained world-empires. Unstable
-Modern day, world-system is a world-economy, made up of diverse states and regions connected in networks of dependency: each relies on all others to survive.

54

Global World-System: Periphery
-State? -Class? -Strength?

Peripheral areas, not states, because they often have weak states, internally and relative to other states.
In global division of labour, they are ‘proletariat’: they supply cheap labour and raw materials.
Weak position: lack of accumulated wealth.

55

Global World-System: Semi-Periphery
-Essential? -Popular?

Semi-periphery areas often play unpopular roles that core nations find distasteful, gathering goods from periphery (perhaps by force) for sale on to core.
Essential systematic role in helping goods reach core – like the trading middleman.

56

Global World-System: Core
-Type of labour? -State strength? -Accumulates?

In the world-system division of labour, core regions carry out tasks requiring higher skill & capitalisation.
Core regions governed by strong states: these ensure security for capitalist system and property rights.
Accumulates capital & labour.

57

Neo-colonialism

Continued exploitation & domination of poorer nations by former imperial powers, even after end of formal empire.

58

What did Frantz Fanon warn newly-liberated former colonies of?

disreputable national bourgeoisie would take control of raw materials, and simply exploit them for wealth.
Unlike historical bourgeoisie, this national bourgeoisie rarely developed country; simply extracted wealth.