Flashcards in Solutions to Crime Deck (14):
Societies are held together by shared values. As societies become industrialised and make the transition from communities to major cities there is a risk of the collective settlements (shared values) of society weakening. To stop crime, you need to reaffirm social values e.g restorative justice.
Stan Cohen (Interactionalist)
Criminal records have a significant impact on the identity of young people. So, the way to tackle crime is through non-custodial intervention (do not put them behind bars). Instead, rehabilitate possible offenders by getting them involved in the community so they do not feel like marginalised outsiders. They may have felt like crime was part of their identity, easy to fall back on.
Focault (Late Modernist)
People Police Themselves
Social control used in pre-modern societies needs to be replaced by discipline. Social change meant the ways used to punish offenders in pre-modern society no longer work as it's too erratic. Panopticon prison. Pirvate organisations use CCTV which makes individuals internalise behaviour (think about their actions). Cognative therapy can be used to encourage people to police themselves.
Clarke (Right Realist)
CCTV & Increased Penalties
Crime is a rational choice theory. Crime can be controlled by increasing the chances of getting caught and the penalties of gettng caught. Zero tolerance. CCTV to make it easier to catch criminals.
Wilson and Kelling (Right Realists)
Broken Windows Theory
When we see things which are broken down we feel like no one cares about them, so we can further violate them without consequences. Crime is more likely to occur in areas with criminal damage as it gives the impression people do not care what the area looks like. Crime will flourish if criminal damage and vandalism are visible. Solution- immediate removal of damage.
Lea and Young (Left Realists)
Result of Social Inequality
A sense of relative deprivation has led to groups within society feeling marginalised and more likely to commit a crime. Socal inequality must be fought in order to reduce crime. Influenced Labour government social policy, Tony Blaire "tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime", illustrates difference between right and left realist solutions (zero tolerance approach instead of tackling inequality behind crime).
Kinsey, Lea and Young (Left Realists)
British policing policy needs to be centred on creating and maintaining good communication between the police and local communities. Crime has become increasingly difficult to control as the police alienate themselves from the public. Important issue, 90% of crimes that police are aware of come from public reporting. Important that public have good working relations with them. Policies such as democratically elected police authorities, giving public role in deciding policing policy and community policing.
This solution can cause more trauma to the victims of crime.
Stan Cohen's theory is supported by the fact that over 50% of ex-offenders re-offend within 2 years.
Fails to recognise the fact that many prisoners do not change behaviour, even when being watched.
Would only move crime elsewhere, not fully prevent it.
Wilson and Kelling Evaluation
Has been successful in the NY Clean Car Program
Lea and Young Evaluation
Do not provide an explanation as to how to prevent social inequality.