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Flashcards in SPECIAL SENSES Deck (70)
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0
Q

The _________(_) is responsible for motor control of the eye and constricting of the iris (PNS)

A

Occulomotor (3)

1
Q

What nerve causes afferent impulses for vision?

A

Optic (2)

2
Q

The trochlear (5) and abducens (6) control what?

A

Eyeball movement and proprioception

3
Q

What causal nerve controls the lacrimal gland and is responsible for tears ?

A

Facal (7)

4
Q

Nearly half of the __________ _______ is involved in processing visual information

A

Cerebral cortex

5
Q

The eyebrows over lie the ___________ margins

A

Supra orbital

6
Q

The eyelids protect the eye _______

A

Anteriorly

7
Q

_______ is a transparent membrane of the eye

A

Conjunctiva

8
Q

Tears drain into the_________ duct

A

nasolacrimal

9
Q

Tears enter paired lacrimal______ via the lacrimal_____

A

canaliculi

puncta

10
Q

How many extrinsic eye muscles are there?

A

6

4 rectus - originate from common tendinous ring; names indicate the movements they promote
2 oblique - move eye in verticals plane and rotate eyeball

11
Q

The six strap like extrinsic eye muscles originate from the bony ______

A

orbit

12
Q

The lateral rectus moves the eye _______ and is controlled by the ______ cranial nerve

A

Laterally

Abducens

13
Q

The medial rectus moves the eye ________ and is controlled by the ________ nerve

A

Medially

laterally

14
Q

The _______ _________ elevates the eye and turns it medially - it is controlled by the occulomotor nerve

A

superior rectus

15
Q

The ______ ______ depresses the eye and turns it medially - It’s controlled by the occulomotor nerve

A

Inferior rectus

16
Q

The inferior oblique muscle _______ the eye and turns it _________

A

Elevates

Laterally

17
Q

The _______ ______ depresses the eye and turns it laterally - it is controlled by the ________ cranial nerve

A

superior oblique

Trochlear

18
Q

How many layers is within the eyeball

A

3

19
Q

What are there 3 layers of the eyeball

A

Fibrous
Vascular
Sensory

20
Q

The outer most layer of the eyeball is …?

A

Fibrous

21
Q

The outermost layer of the eyeball - the fibrous layer is divided into two regions: the ______ and the ________

A

Sclera (posterior portion) (the white layer)

Cornea (anterior) (the transparent layer)

22
Q

What separates the internal cavity into interior and posterior segments (cavities)

A

The lens

23
Q

What pumps of the corneal endothelium on the inner face help maintain the clarity of the cornea

A

Sodium

24
Q

The ______ layer forms the middle part of the eyeball and has ____ sections

A

Vascular

3

25
Q

The vascular layer of the eyeball is divided into three layers;

CCI

A

Choroid
Ciliary body
Iris

26
Q

The _________ is a blood vessel rich, dark brown membrane. It’s vessels nourish the eye and prevent light scattering

A

choroid

27
Q

Anteriorly the choroid becomes the ____________- a thickened ring if tissue that encircles the lens

A

Ciliary body

28
Q

The _____ Is the visible colour of the eyeball

A

Iris

29
Q

The muscle fibres if the _____ help it to act as a reflexively activated diaphragm to vary pupil size

A

Iris

30
Q

The sphincter pupillae muscle contraction ________ pupil size and is p___________

A

Decreases

Parasympathetic

31
Q

Dialator pupillae muscle contraction ______ pupil size and is _________

A

Increases

sympathetic

32
Q

The iris consists of two muscles the ________ pupillae and the ______ pupillae

A

Sphincter

Dilator

33
Q

The sensory layer of the eye includes the ______

A

retina

34
Q

The retina consists of two layers:

A

The pigmented layer of the retina and the neural layer of the retina

35
Q

The _____ layer of the retina is the pigmented layer

A

outer

36
Q

The ________ inner _______ layer of the retina extends Anteriorly to the posterior margin if the ciliary body

A

transparent

neural

37
Q

From posterior to anterior the neural layer is composed of three main types of neurons;

  1. P
  2. B
  3. G
A

Photoreceptors
Bipolar cells
Ganglion cells

38
Q

The ______ disc is where the retina exits the eyeball

A

optic

39
Q

______ dim light and peripheral vision receptors and are the most sensitive

A

Rods

40
Q

______, by contrast are vision recruits for bright light and provide colour vision

A

Cones

41
Q

____ cell axons run along the inner surface of the retina and leave the eye as the optic nerve

A

Ganglion

42
Q

The lens is a halo like ciliary zonule that divides the eye into two segments. The anterior segment in front if the lens and the larger posterior segment behind it. The posterior segment is filled with a clear gel called ___________

A

Vitreous humour

43
Q

The iris divides the anterior segment into the anterior chamber (between the cornea and the iris) and the posterior chamber (between the iris and the lens)
The entire anterior segment is filled with ______ humour

A

aqueous

44
Q

______ humour of the anterior segment Is in constant motion and is similar composition to blood plasma

A

Aqueous

45
Q

_______;Packets of energy called protons (quanta) that travel in a wave like fashion

A

Light

46
Q

______ and _______ respond to different wavelengths of the visible spectrum

A

Rods and cones

47
Q

Refraction occurs when light meets the surface of a different medium at an ________ angle

A

oblique

48
Q

Pathway of light

________>________ humour>lens>_______ humour>neural layer of retina>photoreceptors

A

Cornea
aqueous
vitreous

49
Q

Light is refracted

  1. At the ______
  2. Entering the lens
  3. Exiting the lens
A

cornea

50
Q

Change in ______ curvature allows for fine focusing of an image

A

lens

51
Q

The lens is ________ for distant vision

A

Flattened

52
Q

___________ input relaxed the ciliary muscle, tightening the ciliary zonule and flattening the lens

A

Sympathetic

53
Q

Close vision requires

Accommodation, __________ and ____________

A

Constriction and convergence

54
Q

The lens bulges for close vision. ______________ input contacts the ciliary muscle, loosening the ciliary zonule, allowing the lens to bulge

A

Parasympathetic

55
Q

The outer segments of rods and cones are embedded in the pigmented layer of the ______

A

retina

56
Q

Rods are very sensitive to _____ light

A

Dim

57
Q

_____need bright light got activation

A

Cones

58
Q

The visual pigment of rods Is ______. When light is absorbed it breaks down

A

rhodopsin

59
Q

There are three parts to the ear:
1
2
3

A

External (outer)
Middle ear (tympanic cavity)
Internal (inner) ear

60
Q

The ______ ear and the _______ ear are involved with hearing

A

external

Middle

61
Q

The _______ ear (lay birth) functions in both hearing and equilibrium

A

internal

62
Q

The auricle (pinna) of the external ear is composed of the ______ and the _______

A

Helix

Lobule

63
Q

The hole of the ear is called the ____________ acoustic ____________ (auditory canal)

A

External acoustic meatus

64
Q

The boundary between the external and middle ear is termed the ___________ membrane

A

Tympanic membrane

65
Q

The __________ is described as a small, air filled, muscoss lined cavity in the temporal bone

A

Middle ear

66
Q

The ___________ (auditory tube) connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

A

pharyngotympanic

67
Q

The superior portion of the middle ear is termed the _________ recess

A

epitympanic

68
Q

The 3 auditory ossicles are 3 small bones in tympanic cavity: the
M_______
I________
S________

A

Malleus (most medial - the hammer)
Incus
Stapes

69
Q

The internal ear consists the bony labyrinth, _______ labyrinth

A

membranous