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Flashcards in Spinal Final Exam Quiz Questions Deck (103):
0

The cranial root of the eleventh cranial nerve is annexed by which nerve? 143.4

the vagus nerve

1

What will branchial efferent fibers from the cranial root of cranial nerve XI innervate? 143.6

intrinsic skeletal muscles of the larynx

2

What location gives rise to the spinal root of the eleventh cranial nerve? 143.7

spinal nucleus formed from the ventral horn of spinal cord levels C1-C5

3

What is unique about the eleventh cranial nerve? 143.8

it it the only cranial nerve to originate, in part, from the spinal cord and it is the only cranial nerve to be associated with the foramen magnum

4

What will branchial efferent fibers in the spinal root of cranial nerve XI innervate? 143.9

sternocleidomastoideus and trapezius muscles

5

Branches of the twelfth cranial nerve provide somatic efferent innervation to which extrinsic muscles of the tongue? 144.7

genioglossus muscle, styloglossus muscle, and hyoglossus muscles

6

Recurrent meningeal branches from the twelfth cranial nerve will arise from what area of the cranial vault? 144.8

dura mater of the posterior cranial fossa

7

Peripheral processes from sensory receptors in the dura mater of the posterior cranial fossa will be conveyed from the twelfth cranial nerve to what nerve? 144.9

the ventral ramus of the first cervical nerve

8

Peripheral processes associated with the twelfth cranial nerve arise from pseudounipolar afferent neurons at what location? 144.10

the dorsal root ganglion of C1

9

Central processes from pseudounipolar afferent neurons associated with the twelfth cranial nerve synapse at what location? 144.11

the dorsal horn of C1

10

What is the morphological classification of afferent neurons in the dorsal nerve root ganglion? 147.3

pseudounipolar neuron

11

What is the morphological classification of motor neurons? 148.16

multipolar neuron

12

What are the primary neuronal projections observed in a nerve? 148.5

peripheral sensory processes and motor nerve fibers

13

What part of an afferent neuron is conveyed in the dorsal nerve root? 150.14

central sensory process

14

What are the subdivisions of the visceral division of the peripheral nerve system? 152.8

sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric

15

What is the function of the enteric nerve system? 152.10

control of motility, exocrine and endocrine secretions, microcirculation and regulation of the immune and inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract

16

What are locations for neurons of the enteric nerve system? 152.12

the myenteric plexus of Auerbach and the submucosal plexus of Meissner

17

What is the presumed role of the interstitial cell of Cajal? 153.17

they act as pacemakers for the slow wave, continuous peristaltic activity of the gut

18

What function is primarily emphasized for the myenteric plexus of Auerbach? 153.19

peristaltic activity along the gastrointestinal tract

19

What function is primarily emphasized for the submucosal plexus of Meissner? 153. 24

influence on the process of secretion/absorption of the gut

20

Other than ganglia or plexuses, in what additional location will neural crest cells associated with the sympathetic division be located? 154.13

adrenal medulla

21

How many paravertebral ganglia are present in the adult? 155.4

21 pair or 42 paravertebral ganglia

22

The superior cervical ganglion is the result of fusion of which paravertebral ganglia? 155.12

C1-C4 paravertebral ganglia

23

The stellate ganglion is the result of fusion of which paravertebral ganglia? 156.23

C7, C8, T1 paravertebral ganglia

24

Which paravertebral ganglia fuse to form the ganglion impar? 156.30

both sacrococcygeal ganglia fuse in the midline, S5 and Co1 paravertebral ganglia on both sides fuse in the midline

25

What are the names of the most consistent prevertebral ganglia? 157.4

celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion and inferior mesenteric ganglion

26

Which of the prevertebral nerve plexuses are more likely to contain secondary sympathetic neuron cell bodies? 157.7

cardiac plexus, pulmonary plexus, celiac plexus and inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus

27

Based on the target cell innervated, what are the classifications given to postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers? 157.2

vasomotor fiber, pilomotor fiber, sudomotor fiber and secretomotor fibers

28

Which paravertebral ganglia give rise to pelvic splanchnic nerves? 161.23

none... these are parasympathetic efferent nerves

29

What rami will communicate with the paravertebral ganglia? 161.25

white rami communicans, gray rami communicans, interganglionic rami communicans and splanchnic nerves

30

What is the termination of the horizontal sympathetic neuronal pathway? 161.1

smooth muscle or glandular tissue in the parietal wall of the thorax and upper abdomen; territory roughly corresponding to the T1-T12, L1-L2 dermatomes

31

What is the termination of the ascending sympathetic neuronal pathway? 162.1

smooth muscle or glandular tissue in the head, neck, and upper extremity

32

In the descending pathway, what is the location of synapse of the preganglionic sympathetic efferent fiber? 163.3

in a paravertebral ganglion lower than the paravertebral ganglion of origin

33

In the splanchnic pathway, what is the location of synapse of the preganglionic sympathetic efferent fiber? 164.3

in a prevertebral ganglion or prevertebral plexus

34

Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the pathway to the vertebral artery? 165.2

inferior cervical ganglion

35

Postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers will become incorporated in what neuronal structure in the pathway to the eye? 165.7

internal carotid artery nerve plexus

36

Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the pathway to the head? 166.26

superior cervical ganglion

37

Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the pathway to the heart? 166.28

(1) paravertebral ganglia of origin from T1-T4, T5
(2) any cervical paravertebral ganglion
(3) the cardiac plexus

38

Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the adrenal gland pathway? 167.38

chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla

39

Which splanchnic nerves contain preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers? 168.11

nervi erigentes or pelvic splanchnic nerves

40

What is the name of the largest medullary feeder artery? 170.21

the artery of Adamkiewicz or the arteria radicalis magna anterior

41

What are the characteristics of the Artery of Adamkiewicz? 170.27

it is a left side, anterior medullary feeder artery, located in the T9/T10 intervertebral foramen, and the primary vascular supply to the lumbar enlargement

42

What will the intervertebral veins drain into? 171.45

the external vertebral venous plexus or Batson's plexus

43

What is the unique histological feature of the veins of the vertebral column? 171.46

they lack valves

44

What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine nerve root characteristics? 172.7

the length of the nerve root increases as it descends from its apparent origin on the spinal cord, but the cross-sectional area of the nerve root decreases

45

What are the specific attachment sites for a cervical spinal nerve? 172.9

the sulcus for the ventral primary ramus on the costotransverse bar & the vertebral artery

46

What forms the lumbosacral tunnel? 173.19

the lumbosacral ligament, transverse process of L5 and sacral ala

47

What condition is the result of encroachment on the L5 spinal nerve? 173.20

the far out syndrome

48

What are some examples of destructive lesions of the vertebral body? 173.28

tuberculosis, hemangiomas, osteoporosis

49

What are examples of acquired alterations of the spinal curves identified in class? 173.31

obesity, pregnancy and the use of backpacks

50

What is unusual about the cervical annulus fibrosus? 176.1

it lacks any lamellar or layered organization

51

What is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae? 177.13

collagen fibers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral-counterspiral organization is observed

52

What is the earliest indicator of intervertebral disc pathology or degeneration? 178.10

changes in the histology of the cartilage end plate

53

What are the sources of innervation of the intervertebral disc? 179.8

the sinu-vertebral nerve (sinus vertebral nerve, recurrent meningeal nerve), fibers from the ventral primary ramus, fibers from the white ramus communicans, fibers from the paradiscal ramus communicans, fibers from the gray ramus communicans

54

What is the name given to the white ramus communicans which becomes embedded within the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc? 180.23

the paradiscal ramus communicans

55

What does the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von Ebner become? 182.10

the perichordal disc

56

What is the earliest indicator of the position of the adult intervertebral disc? 183.18

the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von Ebner

57

What is ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region now identified as? 184.11

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis or DISH

58

What is the clinical sign of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in the cervical spine? 185.15

a loss of hand and finger dexterity

59

What is the name given to the ligamentum flavum based on appearance and histology? 186.11

it is a yellow elastic ligament

60

What is the name given to the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae? 188.5

The funicular layer or part

61

What forms the ventral slip of the intertransverse ligament in the lumbar spine? 190.7

A membranous partition from the vertebral body covers the intervertebral foramen and extends back to the transverse process to form a ventral slip. It is penetrated by the contents of the intervertebral foramen.

62

What is ADI? 193.17

the Atlanto-Dental Interspace, a radiographic distance between the surfaces of the anterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint

63

What is the ADI of children? 193.19

about 4.5 mm

64

What are the attachment sites for the accessory ligament of the lateral atlanto-axial joint? 194.24

the base of the odontoid process and vertebral body of axis to the tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament of atlas

65

What are the degrees of one side axial rotation facilitated at the atlanto-axial joint? 195.42

about 40 degrees one side axial rotation

66

The occiput-C1-C2 joint complex accounts for what percent of all cervical axial rotation? 195.45

about 60%

67

What is the embryonic derivative of the apical ligament of the dens or the apicodental ligament? 195.4

the notochord

68

What are the attachment sites for the anterior atlanto-dental ligament? 196.11

the alar ligament and ipsilateral lateral mass of C1

69

What are the attachment sites for the superficial layer of the membrana tectoria or tectorial membrane? 196.21

the posterior part of the inferior epiphyseal rim and vertebral body of C2 to the capsular ligament of the atlanto-occipital joint and cranial dura of the posterior cranial fossa

70

Which vertebral couples of the thoracic spine have the greatest motion? 200.44

T11/T12 and T12/L1

71

Which of the current ligaments from the iliolumbar ligament complex represents the iliolumbar ligament of classical descriptions? 201.14

the superior iliolumbar ligament

72

Which vertebral couple of the lumbar spine has the greatest range of motion? 202.23

L5/S1

73

List, in order, from cranial to caudal the ligaments forming the anterior boundary of the spinal canal. 203.8

the membrana tectoria, posterior longitudinal ligament and the deep dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament

74

What is the auricular surface of the ilium composed of? 204.5

articular cartilage, interspersed with fibrocartilage

75

What does ankylosis mean? 205.13

a condition of fibrous adhesion occurs within the joint

76

What passes between the layers of the interosseous sacro-iliac ligament? 206.28

dorsal rami from the sacral spinal nerves

77

Which of the sternocostal or sternochondral ligaments is unique to the second sternocostal or sternochondral joint? 207.13

the intra-articular ligament

78

What is the classification of the sixth through the ninth interchondral joints? 208.25

diarthrosis arthrodia

79

What points on the skull are used to measure the skull size? 211.40

the nasion, vertex, inion, and gnathion

80

What is unique about the ophthalmic artery and vein? 214.27

unlike other artery-vein combinations they will not share the same opening the ophthalmic artery is in the optic canal, ophthalmic veins are in the superior orbital fissure

81

What are the contents of the foramen spinosum? 214.38

the nervus spinosus from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and the middle meningeal artery

82

What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa? 216.3

the tentorium cerebelli

83

What can the five layers of the scalp spell? 220.2

Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose Connective tissue, Periosteum..SCALP

84

What are the major constituents of the five layers of the scalp? 220.3

skin, neurovascular, muscular, loose connective tissue, periosteum

85

Which muscles lack any attachment to bone? 222.9

orbicularis oris, procerus & risorius

86

What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit? 224.13

lamina papyracea

87

Identify the opening(s) found along each wall of the orbit. 224.27

superior wall: optic canal
medial wall: anterior ethmoid & posterior ethmoid foramina
lateral wall: superior orbital fissure
inferior wall: inferior orbital fissure

88

What are the names given to the modified sebaceous glands of the palpebra? 225.10

tarsal gland or Meibomian gland and ciliary gland

89

What are the parts of the uveal tract of the eyeball? 229.36

iris, ciliary body, choroid & pupil

90

What is contained in the posterior chamber of the eyeball? 230.49

aqueous humor

91

What fills the vitreous chamber? 231.57

vitreous body

92

What is the common characteristic regarding the insertion of both oblique extraocular muscles? 231.61

both insert onto the sclera on the lateral margin of the eyeball behind the equator

93

What is the common characteristic concerning the insertion of the superior and inferior rectus extraocular muscles? 231.62

they insert onto the sclera of the eyeball in front of the equator and are displaced slightly medially

94

What is the name of the palpable posterior projection of the eminentia concha of the auricle? 235.28

ponticulus

95

What part of the external acoustic meatus is protected by bone? 236.44

the medial two thirds

96

What branch of the facial nerve penetrates the parotid gland, but is not given off within it? 237.22

the chorda tympani nerve

97

Describe the result of sympathetic innervation in the parotid gland. 238.30

vasoconstriction of arteries reduces available water to form saliva and results in a thick, mucous-like product

98

What action will parasympathetic innervation have on the parotid gland? 238.34

vasodilation of arteries resulting in a thinner, watery, or whey-like saliva

99

The otic ganglion will be located in what region of the head? 240.14

the infratemporal region

100

Where are the attachment sites of the lateral/temporomandibular ligament?

zygomatic process and articular tubercle of the temporal bone to neck of the mandible

101

What are the attachment sites of the stylomandibular ligament? 242.6

styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible

102

What are the attachment sites of the sphenomandibular ligament? 242.8

the spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingual of the mandible