Spinal II Test II Quiz Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spinal II Test II Quiz Questions Deck (186):
1

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1? 17.5

longus colli

2

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1? 17.10

they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

3

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1? 18.14

backward, medial, downward (BMD)

4

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1? 18.16

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

5

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1? 18.17

levator scapula, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior

6

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender? 18.20

males: about fifty millimeters; females: about thirty-seven millimeters

7

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1? 18.21

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

8

With regard to ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament, what is the gender bias, bone classification, amount of ossification and general percent in the population? 18.25

male, accessory bone, complete ponticulus posticus, fifteen percent;
female, accessory bone, partial ponticulus posticus, twenty-six percent

9

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1? 19.32

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles

10

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1? 19.34

males: 78 millimeters and females: 72 millimeters

11

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender? 19.36

a little over 30 millimeters for both males and females

12

What joint classifications are observed at C1? 19.37

amphiarthrosis syndesmosis, diarthrosis ellipsoidal, diarthrosis trochoid, diarthrosis arthrodia

13

What are names given to C2? 19.1

axis or epistropheus

14

What joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2? 20.12

amphiarthrosis syndesmosis, diarthrosis trochoid, modified diarthrosis sellar and amphiarthrosis symphysis

15

What attaches to the lamina of C2? 20.19

obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum

16

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1? 17.13

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

17

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior? 20.7

kyphotic dens

18

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2? 20.15

membrana tectoria

19

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2? 20.23

backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

20

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2? 21.30

males: fifty-seven millimeters and females: about fifty millimeters

21

What name is given only to C7? 21.3

vertebra prominens

22

What is the segment and gender bias for vertebrae other than C7 becoming the vertebral prominence? 22.5

C6 is more common in females and T1 is more common in males

23

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C7? 22.8

eight

24

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C7? 22.15

middle scalene, iliocostalis thoracis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, rotators, intertransversarii and levator costarum brevis

25

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C7? 22.18

forward, medial, downward (ForMeD)

26

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C7? 22.21

trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior superior, splenius capitis, spinalis capitis, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis

27

The vertebral artery on which side is typically larger? 23.2

left vertebral artery

28

What is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery? 23.3

men have larger vertebral arteries than women

29

What is the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency? 23.4

the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test

30

Which side artery is tested during the course of the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam? 23.5

the ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation

31

At what location will the vertebral artery form its first compensatory loop? 23.9

the atlanto-axial interspace

32

At what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen? 23.11

both C1 and C2

33

What is the purpose of the vertebral artery loops between C2, C1, and occiput? 23.12

the increased length will accommodate the greater rotation at these locations

34

What happens to the vertebral artery after it enters the subarachnoid space at C1? 23.14

the vertebral artery ascends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine-medullary junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery

35

What artery is formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries? 23.15

the basilar artery

36

What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C1 nerve from the spinal canal? 24.9

occipital condyle, superior articular process of C1, capsular ligament, arcuate rim, groove for the vertebral artery, posterior atlanto-occiptal ligament

37

What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C2 nerve from the spinal canal? 24.10

inferior articular process of C1, superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament, inferior vertebral notch of C1, superior vertebral notch of C2, posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2, posterior atlanto-axial ligament

38

What forms the anterior boundary for the C3-C7 nerve exit from the spinal canal? 24.13

the vertebral bodies, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, uncinate process, lateral groove

39

What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8 segmental groups? 25.3

the vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process

40

What is the aortic impression? 25.11

the flattening of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims on the left side of the vertebral body of T5-T8 which give the vertebral body a less scalloped or less indented appearance on that side

41

What is the principal cause of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine? 25.15

the vertebral body height differences

42

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic? 26.19

amphiarthrosis syndesmosis, amphiarthrosis symphysis and diarthrosis arthrodia

43

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic? 26.23

four

44

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic? 26.26

typically ten; fourteen if the rib ligaments are included

45

What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib? 26.27

costocentral joint

46

What ligaments support the costocentral joint? 27.34

the radiate costocentral or stellate costocentral ligament and the interarticular or intra-articular ligament

47

What does the intra-articular or interarticular ligament connect to? 27.37

the interarticular or intra-articular crest of the capitulum of the rib and the intervertebral disc

48

Which X-ray view is used to see into the intervertebral foramen of a typical thoracic? 27.42

the lateral view

49

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of a typical thoracic? 28.59

the superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments

50

The superior costotransverse ligament of the transverse process of T4 will attach to which rib? 29.61

the fifth rib

51

Which muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic? 29.68

the longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis thoracis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus and levator costarum brevis

52

How can you distinguish between a T2-T4 from T5-T8 segment using the articular process? 29.73

At T2-T4 the width between the superior articular processes is greater than the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra.
At T5-T8 the width between the superior articular processes is equal to or the same as the width between the inferior articular processes of the vertebra

53

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic? 30.78

they face forward, downward, and medial (ForMeD)

54

Imbrication will be more pronounced for what region of the thoracics? 31.94

T5-T8

55

What is the angulation of the spinous process in the typical thoracic region? 31.97

the undersurface of T2-T4 spinous processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane
the undersurface of T5-T8 spinous processes will angle up to sixty degrees from the horizontal plane

56

Which muscles may attach to the spinous process of a typical thoracic? 31.105

the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, serratus posterior superior, splenius cervicis, splenius capitis, spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis

57

What muscles are associated with the five muscle layers of the true back? 32.110

layer one consists of the trapezius and latissimus dorsi
layer two consists of the rhomboids and levator scapulae
layer three consists of the serratus posterior
layer four consists of the erector spinae
layer five consists of the transversospinalis

58

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1? 34.16

typically ten; fourteen if the rib ligaments are included

59

What ligament is absent at the costotransverse joint of T1? 36.40

the superior costotransverse ligament

60

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of T1? 36.41

intertransverse, capsular costotransverse, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse

61

Para-articular processes are more commonly observed on which segment? 46.33

T10

62

A dimpling or depression of the skin in the thoracic region is often characteristic of the location of which segment? 48.69

T10

63

What name is given to T11? 50.2

the anticlinal vertebra

64

Which muscle(s) is attached to the vertebral body of T12? 58.31

psoas major and psoas minor

65

What ligament(s) are said to attach to the transverse process of T12? 58.47

the intertransverse ligament

66

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of T12? 59.59

they face forward, downward, and lateral

67

How many synovial joints are typically present at T12? 59.63

six

68

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T12? 60.74

the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, serratus posterior inferior, iliocostalis lumborum, spinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis

69

Which erector spinae muscle is unique in it's attachment to the T12 spinous process? 60.78

iliocostalis lumborum

70

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve? 63.7

the vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior hieght

71

What muscles may attach to a typical lumbar vertebral body? 64.21

psoas major and psoas minor

72

What is the name given to ligaments which attach vertebral body to articular process? 64.25

transforaminal ligaments

73

What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process? 65.30

corporotransverse ligaments

74

What is the proposed function of the Hofmann ligaments in the cervical-upper thoracic region? 65.39

resist caudal movement of the dural sac; resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord

75

What is the proposed function of the lumbar Hofmann ligaments? 65.41

resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

76

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region? 67.59

overlap of the laminae, shingling, diminishes;
overlap of spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes

77

A styloid process occurs with what frequency and as a result of what condition? 67.70

7% occurrence as a result of congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process

78

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accesory ligament? 68.75

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

79

What muscle(s) attach to the lumbar accessory process? 68.77

longissimus thoracis and intertransversarii

80

What names are given to the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane or position? 70.109

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

81

What is the name(s) of the condition when the typical lumbar spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?70.114

Baastrup's syndrome or "kissing spines"

82

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra? 75.63

the lumbosacral, iliolumbar, mammillo-accessory and intertransverse ligaments

83

What names are given to the condition in which the right zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in a plane or position different from the left zygapophysis? 76.87

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

84

What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the fifth lumbar spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexion produces pain? 77.95

Knife Clasp Syndrome

85

Lumbar spondylolysis has not been reported in what groups of individuals? 79.12

fetuses, newborns, rarely in children under five years old, patients who have never walked and in non-erect species

86

What is the gender bias and locational bias associated with lumbar spondylolysis? 79.17

men at L5/S1; women at L4/L5

87

What is the appearance of a spondylolysis in a lumbar vertebra upon oblique x-ray view? 80.26

a collared Scotty dog

88

What characteristics are associated with cervical spondylolysis? 80.30

rare, congenital, gender biased toward men, most common at C6 and linked to spondylolisthesis and spina bifida

89

What is the ethnic, gender, and locational bias associated with sacral spondylolysis? 81.44

the native Alaskan (Inuit) male at the S1 level

90

Identify all names given to type I spondylolisthesis? 81.6

dysplastic spondylolisthesis, congenital spondylolisthesis

91

What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type II spondylolisthesis? 82.20

isthmic spondylolisthesis is common in men, located at the L5/S1 level and demonstrates an increase in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

92

What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimension changes often associated with type III spondylolisthesis? 83.28

degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women, particularly at L4/L5, and demonstrates no change in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

93

What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis? 83.35

bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta

94

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest? 87.60

the mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

95

What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest: 87.67

S1 transverse tubercle, sacral tuberosity of S2, transverse tubercles of S3, S4, and S5

96

What is the name of the joint formed by the sacral tuberosity? 87.69

the accessory sacro-iliac joint

97

What forms the posterior boundary for the first coccygeal spinal nerve intervertebral foramen? 89.6

sacral cornu, coccygeal cornu, superficial dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament, intercornual ligament

98

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal? 90.12

the union of the superficial dorsal and deep dorsal sacrococcygeal ligaments

99

Superior articular facets of which vertebrae will be orientated backward, upward, and medial? 91.16

C1, C3-C7, L1-L5, S1

100

Superior articular facets of which segments will be orientated backward, upward, and lateral? 91.18

C2, T1-T12

101

Inferior articular facets of which segments will be orientated forward, lateral, and downward? 91.20

C2-C6, T12, L1-L5

102

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1? 92.8

atlas assimilation

103

What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2? 92.12

the subdental synchondrosis

104

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and the centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7? 93.16

os odontoideum

105

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid process centers of ossification? 93.19

tip of the dens synchondrosis

106

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called? 93.24

terminal ossicle

107

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7? 93.29

from one-half to two and one-half percent of the population

108

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7? 94.32

female

109

What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization? 94.39

the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward to forward, lateral, and downward; the superior articular facet in unchanged

110

What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1? 94.45

males are two to three times more affected

111

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization? 95.47

the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral to concave, back, upward, and medial; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

112

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1? 95.49

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

113

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine? 95.56

L5

114

What development events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve? 96.14

centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
muscular attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
the head is held upright
the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

115

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the erect? 96.16

the righting reflex

116

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve? 97.23

crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

117

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness? 97.32

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination

118

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class? 98.12

military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

119

What are the curve classifications for military neck? 99.26

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

120

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society? 100.32

magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural

121

What does idiopathic scoliosis infer? 100.42

the scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology

122

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis. 100.48

left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

123

Identify the direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. 100.49

right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12%-21% incidence

124

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias, and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 101.50

right thoracic or left thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

125

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening? 101.52

the greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen

126

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin-insertion? 103.45

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

127

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7? 93.29

from one-half to two and one-half percent of the population

128

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7? 94.32

female

129

What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization? 94.39

the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward to forward, lateral, and downward; the superior articular facet in unchanged

130

What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1? 94.45

males are two to three times more affected

131

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization? 95.47

the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral to concave, back, upward, and medial; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

132

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1? 95.49

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

133

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine? 95.56

L5

134

What development events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve? 96.14

centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
muscular attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
the head is held upright
the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

135

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the erect? 96.16

the righting reflex

136

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve? 97.23

crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

137

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness? 97.32

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination

138

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class? 98.12

military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

139

What are the curve classifications for military neck? 99.26

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

140

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society? 100.32

magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural

141

What does idiopathic scoliosis infer? 100.42

the scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology

142

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis. 100.48

left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

143

Identify the direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. 100.49

right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12%-21% incidence

144

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias, and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 101.50

right thoracic or left thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

145

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening? 101.52

the greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen

146

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin-insertion? 103.45

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

147

What is the vertebral column origin for the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum? 105.66

Accessory process and medial part of the transverse process of L1-L5

148

Which muscles are identified as transversospinalis muscles? 106.96

Semispinalis, multifidis and rotators

149

The semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis may fuse to form what muscle? 107.114

Biventer cervicis

150

Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine? 108.124

Multifidis

151

Which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the expected origin-insertion combination? 109.136

Iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum, longissimus thoracic pars lumborum and multifidis lumborum

152

What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group? 111.170

Postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

153

Which muscle group is innervated by both dorsal rami and ventral rami of spinal nerves? 112.201

Intertransversarii

154

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii? 113.203

Acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

155

Which muscle is said to form the iliolumbar ligament? 114.232

Quadratus lumborum

156

Identify all muscle groups innervated by dorsal rami branch patterns. 116.260

Splenius, erector spinae, transversospinalis, suboccipital, interspinalis, levator costarum and intertransversarii

157

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7? 93.29

from one-half to two and one-half percent of the population

158

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7? 94.32

female

159

What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization? 94.39

the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward to forward, lateral, and downward; the superior articular facet in unchanged

160

What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1? 94.45

males are two to three times more affected

161

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization? 95.47

the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral to concave, back, upward, and medial; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

162

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1? 95.49

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

163

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine? 95.56

L5

164

What development events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve? 96.14

centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
the head is held upright
the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

165

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect? 96.16

the righting reflex

166

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve? 97.23

crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

167

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness? 97.32

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination

168

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class? 98.12

military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

169

What are the curve classifications for military neck? 99.26

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

170

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society? 100.32

magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural

171

What does idiopathic scoliosis infer? 100.42

the scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology

172

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis. 100.48

left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

173

Identify the direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. 100.49

right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12%-21% incidence

174

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias, and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 101.50

right thoracic or left thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

175

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening? 101.52

the greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen

176

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin-insertion? 103.45

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

177

What is the vertebral column origin for the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum? 105.66

Accessory process and medial part of the transverse process of L1-L5

178

Which muscles are identified as transversospinalis muscles? 106.96

Semispinalis, multifidis and rotators

179

The semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis may fuse to form what muscle? 107.114

Biventer cervicis

180

Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine? 108.124

Multifidis

181

Which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the expected origin-insertion combination? 109.136

Iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum, longissimus thoracic pars lumborum and multifidis lumborum

182

What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group? 111.170

Postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

183

Which muscle group is innervated by both dorsal rami and ventral rami of spinal nerves? 112.201

Intertransversarii

184

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii? 113.203

Acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

185

Which muscle is said to form the iliolumbar ligament? 114.232

Quadratus lumborum

186

Identify all muscle groups innervated by dorsal rami branch patterns. 116.260

Splenius, erector spinae, transversospinalis, suboccipital, interspinalis, levator costarum and intertransversarii