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Flashcards in Spinal II Deck (192):
1

# of vertebrae in typical adolescent?

33 segments

2

# of vertebrae in typical adult?

26 segments

3

# of vertebrae in typical spine?

24 segments

4

What constitutes the spine?

The 24 presacral segments; the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

5

# of segments that unite to form the typical sacrum?

5 segments

6

# of segments that unite to form typical coccyx?

4 segments

7

Which mammals have more than 7 cervical vertebrae?

The ant bear and three toed sloths

8

Which mammals have less than 7 cervical vertebrae?

The manatee and two toed sloth

9

Which mammals do not have 7 cervical vertebrae?

The two toed sloth, manatee, ant bear, and three toed sloth

10

What does the term "cervical" refer to?

The region of the neck

11

What does the term "thoracic" refer to?

Breast plate or chest; it referred to the armor bearing region

12

What other term is often used to identify the vertebral segments of the chest?

The dorsal segments; the dorsals

13

Typical # of segments in the dorsal or thoracic region?

12 segments

14

What does the term "lumbar" refer to?

The loin; the region between the rib and the hip

15

Typical number of segments in the lumbar region?

5 segments

16

What does the term "sacrum" refer to?

The holy bone or holy region

17

What does the term "coccyx" refer to?

A cuckoo bird bill or cuckoo bird beak

18

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

Gender variation or sexual dimorphism

19

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?

Ontogenetic variation

20

Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within a population based on ethnicity or locational variation is identified as which type of variation?

Geographic or population based variation

21

Differences in number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on the variation between individuals is identified as which type of variation?

Idiosyncratic variation

22

Which variations account for the disparity in number and morphology of vertebrae within the population?

Gender variation or sexual dimorphism, ontogenetic variation, geographic or population based variation, and idiosyncratic variation

23

What is the length of a typical male spinal column?

about 70 centimeters or 28 inches

24

What is the typical length of a female spinal column?

about 60 centimeters or 25 inches

25

What is the length of the male cervical region (both measurements)?

about 12 centimeters or 5 inches

26

What is the length of the male thoracic region (both measurements)?

about 28 centimeters or 11 inches

27

What is the length of the male lumbar region (both measurements)?

about 18 centimeters or 7 inches

28

What is the length of the male sacrum (both measurements)?

about 12 centimeters or 5 inches

29

Based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column, what is the length of the male spine (both measurements)?

about 58 centimeters or 23 inches

30

How does the vertebral column participate in skeletal formation?

ribs are formed from the embryonic template

31

What levels of the vertebral column specifically accommodate weight bearing transfer?

S1-S3 at the auricular surface

32

Distinguish between motion and locomotion.

motion is movement without travel; locomotion is movement to a new site/location

33

What specifically is responsible for shape and position of the human frame?

heights of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc

34

How does the vertebral column accommodate transmission?

the peripheral nerves communicate with the central nerve system via the intervertebral foramina

35

What organ(s) are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull?

the eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear

36

How is the vertebral column involved in stabilization of visceral function?

integrity of the spinal column maintains integrity of the nerve system

37

What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebra?

the vertebral body, vertebral arch, and the apophyseal regions

38

What is formed by the vertebral body and the vertebral arch?

the vertebral foramen

39

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

cervical - rectangular; thoracic - triangular; lumbar - reniform

40

What is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal rim, inferior epiphyseal rim

41

What is the central region at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body called?

cancellous or spongy bone

42

What is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of a developing vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal plate, inferior epiphyseal plate

43

What is the time of appearance of the ossification centers for the epiphyseal plate?

from 7-9 years old

44

Epiphyseal plate centers of ossification will unite at what age to form what feature?

about 12 years old, the epiphyseal ring

45

what is the age and name given to the result of the union of the epiphyseal ring - vertebral body?

about 15 years old, the epiphyseal rim

46

What are the ages of appearance and the events occurring at each step in the formation of bone at the superior and inferior surface of the vertebral body?

Age 7-9 years, appearance of epiphyseal plate centers of ossification
Age 12 years, formation of the epiphyseal ring
Age 15 years, formation of the epiphyseal rim

47

What are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?

nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

48

What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

the basivertebral venous foramen

49

What is the name of the type of vessel entering the nutrient or vascular foramen?

osseous artery

50

What is the name given to the large vessel exiting the back of the vertebral body? 4.14

the basivertebral vein

51

What is the semicircular region of the bone attached to the back of the vertebral body called? 4.15

the vertebral arch

52

What is the name given to the anterior part of the vertebral arch? 4.16

the pedicle

53

What is the name given to the posterior part of the vertebral arch? 4.17

the lamina

54

What is the name given to the intermediate part of the vertebral arch where the transverse process and articular processes attach? 4.18

the lamina - pedicle junction

55

What is the name given to the feature located at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle? 4.19

the superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure;
the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

56

What is the genetic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine? 4.20

cervical - posterolateral
thoracic - posterior, slight lateral
lumbar - posterior

57

All lamina are orientated in what direction? 4.21

posterior and median

58

What ligament will attach to the lamina? 5.22

the ligamentum flavum

59

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum? 5.23

para-articular process

60

What classification of bone will para-articular processes represent? 5.24

accessory bone

61

What is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on X-ray? 5.25

shingling

62

What is the name given to the lamina-pedicle junction at each region of the spine?

cervical - articular pillar;
thoracic and lumbar - pars interarticularis

63

What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch-spinous process on later X-ray? 5.27

the spinolaminar junction

64

What is the name given to the tubular bone growth regions of the vertebral arch? 5.28

the apophyseal regions

65

What names may be given to each apophysis of the spine? 5.29

the transverse apophysis or transverse process; articular apophysis or articular process; spinous apophysis or spinous process

66

What is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine? 5.30

cervical - anterolateral;
thoracic - posterolateral;
lumbar - lateral

67

All non-rib-bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent feature? 5.31

the costal element

68

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the end of the transverse apophysis or transverse process? 5. 32

the transverse tubercle

69

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the cervical region? 5.33

cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexuses thus remodeling the transverse process to accommodate their new position

70

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the thoracic region? 5.34

the growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes backwards

71

What will the articular process/articular apophysis support? 5.35

the articular facet

72

What is the name given to the joint formed by the articular facets of the vertebral couple? 5.36

the zygapophysis

73

What is the name given to the bone surface at the front of a zygapophysis? 5.37

the superior articular facet

74

What is the name given to the bone surface at the back of a zygapophysis? 6.38

the inferior articular facet

75

What names are given to the part of the vertebra which supports the front of the zygapophysis? 6.39

the superior articular apophysis, the superior articular process, or the pre-zygapophysis

76

What names are given to the part of the vertebra which supports the back of the zygapophysis? 6.40

the inferior articular apophysis, the inferior articular process, or the post-zygapophysis

77

In the vertebral couple, the part of the vertebra which lies anterior to the zygapophysis is called? 6.41

pre-zygapohpysis

78

In the vertebral couple, the art of the vertebra which lies posterior to the zygapophysis is called? 6.42

post-zygapohysis

79

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the pre-zygapophysis? 6.43

the superior articular process or superior articular apophysis

80

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the post-zygapophysis?

the inferior articular process or inferior articular apophysis

81

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen? 6.45

the inferior articular process/post-zygapophysis, the superior articular process/pre-zygapophysis, the capsular ligament, and the ligamentum flavum

82

What will form the superior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen? 6.46

the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

83

What will form the inferior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen? 6.47

the superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

84

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen? 6.48

the vertebral body of the segment above, the vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral disk, and the posterior longitudinal ligament

85

What is the method of calculating the angle of the spinous process/spinous apophysis? 6.49

calculate the angle formed between the undersurface of the spinous process/spinous apophysis and the horizontal plane

86

What is the name given to the normal overlap of spinous processes or spinous apophysis as seen on X-ray? 6.50

imbrication

87

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the tip of the spinous process/spinous apophysis? 6.51

the spinous tubercle

88

What is the orientation of the spinous process/spinous apophysis at each region of the spine? 6.52

cervical - slight angle inferiorly
thoracic - noticeable angle inferiorly
lumbar - no inferior angle

89

What is the name given to the opening located within the vertebral body - vertebral arch enclosure? 7.1

the vertebral foramen

90

What is the name given to the union of all vertebral foramina into an apparent vertical cylinder? 7.2

the vertebral canal or spinal canal

91

What neural structures will occupy the vertebral foramen until the level of L2? 7.3

the spinal cord/spinal medulla/medulla spinalis, the proximal part of the peripheral nerve system, and the meninges

92

What is the typical shape/outline of the vertebral foramen at each region of the spinal column/vertebral column? 7.4

cervical - triangular; thoracic - oval; lumbar - triangular; sacrum - triangular

93

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord/spinal medulla/medulla spinalis. 7.5

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

94

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord/spinal medulla/medulla spinalis and the commonly accepted meaning of each. 7.6

dura mater - tough mother; arachnoid mater - spider mother; pia mater - tender or delicate mother

95

Name and locate each space formed between the osseous vertebral foramen and the spinal cord/spinal medulla/medulla spinalis. 7.7

epidural space - between the vertebral foramen and the dura mater
subdural space - between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
subarachnoid space - between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater

96

What are the contents of the epidural space? 7.8

anterior and posterior spinal canal artery & plexus
anterior and posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
basivertebral vein
recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve
Hoffmann ligaments
ligamentum flavum
posterior longitudinal ligament

97

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body? 7.9

anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
anterior internal vertebral venous plexous
basivertebral vein
recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral, sinus vertebral nerve
posterior longitudinal ligament
Hoffmann ligaments

98

Which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament? 7.10

anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
basivertebral vein
recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve
Hoffmann ligaments

99

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the back of the vertebral arch? 8.11

posterior spinal canal artery & plexus
posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
ligamentum flavum

100

What is the name given to the fluid within the subdural space? 8.12

serous fluid

101

What is the name given to the fluid with the subarachnoid space? 8.13

cerebrospinal fluid

102

What contents of the subarachnoid space are changed below the level C6? 8.15

the arterial vasa corona consists of 1 anterior spinal artery, 2 posterior spinal arteries and 3 communicating arteries

103

What branch of the segmental artery supplies and paravertebral region? 8.16

dorsospinal artery

104

Which artery is primarily observed in the distal part of the intervertebral foramen? 8.17

spinal artery

105

What are the branches of the spinal artery? 8.18

osseous arteries, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery, anterior medullary feeder arteries, posterior medullary feeder arteries, neural artery

106

Which branches of the spinal artery are typically given off in the epidural space? 8.19

osseous arteries, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery

107

What forms the arterial vasa corona above C3? 8.20

right and left anterior spinal arteries, right and left posterior spinal arteries, and 4 communicating arteries

108

What forms the arterial vasa corona below C6? 8.21

a median anterior spinal artery, right and left posterior spinal arteries, and 3 communicating arteries

109

What changes to the arterial vasa corona occur between C3 and C6? 8.22

right and left anterior spinal arteries fuse to become a single median anterior spinal artery, the right and left posterior spinal arteries are unchanged, and the 4 communicating arteries are reduced to 3 communicating arteries

110

Which vessel will supply the ventral/anterior nerve rootlet? 9.23

anterior proximal radicular artery

111

Which vessel will supply the majority of the ventral/anterior nerve root? 9.24

anterior distal radicular artery

112

Which vessel will supply the dorsal/posterior nerve rootlets? 9.25

posterior proximal radicular artery

113

Which vessel will supply the dorsal/posterior nerve root ganglion? 9.26

posterior distal radicular artery

114

Which vessel will supply the mixed spinal nerve? 9.27

neural artery

115

What are the branches of the neural artery? 9.28

anterior distal radicular artery, posterior distal radicular artery

116

What are the branches of the arterial vasa corona? 9.29

pial perforating arteries, central/ventral/sulcal perforating arteries, anterior proximal radicular arteries, posterior proximal radicular arteries

117

What arterial vasa corona branches supply gray matter and most of the spinal cord? 9.30

ventral/central/sulcal perforating arteries

118

What arterial vasa corona branches supply about one third of the spinal cord? 9.31

pial perforating arteries

119

What is the primary artery supplementing the arterial vasa corona? 9.32

anterior medullary feeders and posterior medullary feeders

120

What vessels drain the spinal cord? 9.33

pial veins

121

What will pial veins drain into? 9.34

venous vasa corona

122

Which vessels form the venous vasa corona? 9.35

right and left anterior longitudinal veins, right and left posterior longitudinal veins, and 4 communicating veins

123

Which vessels will drain the venous vasa corona? 9.36

anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins

124

Which vessels will drain the ventral/anterior nerve roots? 9.37

anterior radicular veins

125

Which vessels will drain the dorsal/posterior nerve roots? 9.38

posterior radicular veins

126

What vessels will drain the dorsal/posterior nerve root ganglion? 9.39

posterior radicular veins

127

What venous vessels are identified in the intervertebral foramen? 9.40

intervertebral veins

128

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament? 10.41

anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral ligament

129

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum? 10.42

posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

130

The continuation of pia mater below the conus medullaris is called? 10.1

filum terminale internum

131

What is the location and name given to the area where all meninges first converge at the caudal part of the vertebral column? 10.2

typically S2, the dural cul de sac

132

In horizontal view, what direction of the spinal cord tends to be largest? 10.3

transverse

133

What are the spinal cord enlargement locations and the name given to each? 10.4

C3-T1, the cervical enlargement; T9-T12, the lumbar/lumbosacral enlargement

134

Where is the greatest transverse diameter of the spinal cord? 10.5

C6

135

What spinal nerves originate from the lumbar/lumbosacral enlargement? 10.6

L1-S3 spinal nerves

136

What is a generic cord level of origin - vertebral level combination for the lumbar/lumbosacral enlargement? 10.7

L1, L2 cord levels in T9 vertebra; L3, L4 cord levels in T10 vertebra;
L5, S1 cord levels in T11 vertebra; S2, S3 cord levels in T12 vertebra

137

What is the caudal end of the spinal cord called? 10.8

conus medullaris

138

What spinal nerves originate from the conus medullaris? 10.9

typically S4, S5, and Co1

139

In which vertebral foramen will the conus medullaris typically observed? 10.10

L1

140

The last arterial vasa corona creates what feature on angiogram? 10.11

cruciate anastomosis

141

What is the name given to the nerve roots below L1? 10.12

cauda equina

142

What is the name given to the condensation of meninges below S2? 10.13

filum terminale externum

143

What is the name given to the caudal attachment of the meninges? 10.14

coccygeal medullary vestige

144

What is the name given to the condition where the conus medullaris is located below L1 and the filum terminale is thickened? 11.15

tethered cord syndrome

145

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae? 11.1

ant bear, three-toed sloth

146

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertibrae? 11.2

two-toed sloth, manatee

147

What is the number of vertebrae in the typical cervical spine? 11.3

seven segments

148

Which vertebrae are typical cervicals? 11.4

C3-C6

149

Which vertebrae are atypical cervicals? 11.5

C1, C2, C7

150

What is the shape of the typical cervical vertebral body from the cranial view? 11.6

rectangular

151

What is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral view? 11.7

posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters

152

What would be the direction of the cervical curve based on osseous features? 11.8

posterior/kyphotic

153

What accounts for the direction of the typical cervical curve? 12.9

the intervertebral disc height

154

What is the direction of the typical cervical curve? 12.10

anterior/lordotic

155

At which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height? 12.11

C5/C6

156

What is the effect of aging on the cervical vertebral body? 12.12

it diminishes the overall height of the vertebral body

157

What are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical? 12.13

anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

158

What are the names of the lateral modification of the superior epiphyseal rim? 12.14

uncinate process, unciform process, uncovertebral process, lateral lip or uncus

159

What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical? 12.15

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves

160

What are the names given to the lateral modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim? 12.16

lateral groove or enchancrure

161

What is the joint classification for the anterior lip-anterior groove articulation? 12.17

amphiarthrosis syndesmosis

162

What is the joint classification for the posterior lip-posterior groove articulation? 12.18

amphiarthrosis syndesmosis

163

What is the joint classification for the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation? 12.19

modified diarthrosis sellar

164

What is the joint classification for the spongy bone-intervertebral disc articulation? 12.20

amphiarthrosis symphysis

165

How many joint surfaces are present on the upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body? 12.21

five

166

How many joint surfaces are present on the lower surface of a typical cervical vertebral body? 12.22

five

167

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical? 12.23

ten

168

How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical? 12.24

four

169

What joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical? 12.25

anterior groove, posterior groove, right uncinate process, left uncinate process, spongy bone, anterior lip, posterior lip, right lateral groove, left lateral groove, spongy bone

170

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical? 12.26

right and left uncinate process, right and left lateral groove

171

What is the name given to the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation? 13.27

joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint

172

The joint of Luschka is formed from what surfaces? 13.28

the uncinate process and lateral groove?

173

What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body? 13.29

the longus colli muscle

174

What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical? 13.30

posterolateral, 45 degrees

175

At what location on the vertebral body of a typical cervical will the pedicle attach? 13.31

to the side and in the center of the vertebral body

176

What surface is located at the upper margin of the pedicle? 13.32

superior vertebral notch

177

What surface feature is located at the lower margin of the pedicle? 13.33

inferior vertebral notch

178

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on the superior vertebral notch of C5? 13.34

C5 spinal nerve

179

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on the inferior vertebral notch of C5? 13.35

C6 spinal nerve

180

What is the direction of projection of the cervical lamina? 13.36

posteromedially

181

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical cervical? 13.37

ligamentum flavum

182

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum and its attachment? 13.38

amphiarthrosis syndesmosis

183

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature? 13.39

para-articular processes

184

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will be associated with which classification of bone? 13.40

accessory bone

185

Ossification within the length of the ligamentum flavum will be associated with which classification of bone? 13.41

heterotopic bone

186

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical cervical vertebra? 13.42

heart-shaped or triangular

187

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical cervicals? 13.43

transverse

188

What soft tissue diameter mimics the outline of the typical cervical vertebral foramen? 14.44

the transverse diameter of the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord

189

The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebra at ____? 14.45

C6

190

The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple? 14.46

C5/C6

191

What osseous parts from the typical cervical vertebra transverse process? 14.47

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

192

List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body.

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process