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0

What are the unique properties of neurons? 117.8

Depolarization, propagation, and transmission of a neural impulse

1

What are the three types of neuroactive substances based on the manner of action? 117.10

Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neurohormones

2

Based on manner of action, define neurotransmitter. 117.11

A neuroactive substance acting rapidly and locally on a target cell

3

What is the name given to the major cellular mass of a neuron? 117.14

The cell body, soma, or perikaryon

4

What are the basic morphologies of neurons? 117.16

Unipolar, bipolar, pseudounipolar, and multipolar neurons

5

What are the possible locations of bipolar neurons? 118.18

The nasal olfactory epithelium, the retina, the vestibular or Scarpa's ganglion, and the cochlear or spiral ganglion

6

What are the possible locations of pseudounipolar neurons? 118.20

Any sensory ganglion other than those of the eighth cranial nerve

7

Where is the primary sensory neuron of a typical sensory pathway located? 118.25

In a sensory ganglion

8

What is the morphology of most motor or efferent neurons associated with the peripheral nerve system? 118.28

Multipolar

9

What are the three classifications of sensory receptor endings? 119.33

Functional specificity, distribution-function and structure or morphology

10

What do chemoreceptors monitor? 119.35

Hypoxia or decreased oxygen levels, hypercapnia or increased carbon dioxide levels and elevated hydrogen ions, an indication of circulating blood pH

11

What are the types and examples of exteroceptors? 119.42

(a) general or cutaneous sense organs such as free nerve endings, encapsulated endings and epidermal endings
(b) special sense receptors for olfaction, vision, hearing, and taste

12

What are the examples of proprioceptors? 119.43

Golgi tendon organs, neuromuscular spindles, Pacinian corpuscles, inner ear receptors for equilibrium and specialized receptors in joints

13

Where will the interoceptors be located? 119.44

In viscera, glands, and blood vessels

14

Which type of encapsulated nerve endings is sensitive to vibration? 120.53

Lamellated corpuscles or Pacinian corpuscles

15

What are the primary neuronal projections observed in a nerve? 120.1

Peripheral sensory processes and motor nerve fibers

16

Muscles derived from somites are innervated by which cranial nerves? 121.17

Cranial nerve III or oculomotor nerve, cranial nerve IV or trochlear nerve, cranial nerve VI or abducens nerve and cranial nerve XII or hypoglossal

17

Muscles derived from the branchial or pharyngeal arches are innervated by which cranial nerve? 121.19

Cranial nerve V or trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve X or vagus nerve and cranial nerve XI or spinal accessory nerve

18

What peripheral nerves contain visceral efferent pathways at their origin? 121.22

Cranial nerve III or oculomotor nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve X or vagus nerve as well as spinal nerves T1-T12, L1, L2, and S2-S4

19

What is the location for the secondary sympathetic efferent neuron cell body? 122.35

A prevertebral ganglion or paravertebral ganglion

20

What are the ultimate target cells of the visceral efferent pathways? 122.23

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular tissue, and some unique specialized cell types

21

Primary parasympathetic efferent neurons will be associated with which cranial nerves? 123.40

Cranial nerve III or oculomotor nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve and cranial nerve X or vagus nerve

22

What is the name given to and neuroactive substance associated with postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers? 123.46

Cholinergic fibers, acetylcholine

23

What types of efferent neurons form nuclei of origin in the brain? 124.8

Somatic neurons, branchial neurons, and primary parasympathetic neurons

24

Will sympathetic efferent neurons be located in the brain? 124.9

No

25

What are the four classifications of afferent neurons? 124.17

Somatic afferent, visceral afferent, special visceral afferent, and special sensory

26

What do somatic afferents monitor? 124.18

Pain, temperature, light touch and proprioception

27

What do visceral afferents monitor? 124.19

Baroreception, chemoreception, sensation from viscera

28

What do special visceral afferents monitor? 125.20

Olfaction and taste

29

What do special sensory afferents monitor? 125.21

Vision, hearing, equilibrium

30

What is unusual about the receptor ending of the primary olfactory neuron? 125.5

It is an olfactory knob covered with olfactory cilia

31

What forms the true olfactory nerve? 125.7

Fila olfactoria

32

What is the location for synapse between primary and secondary afferent neurons of the first cranial nerve? 126.11

Olfactory glomerulus

33

What is the name of the traditional secondary afferent neuron of the first cranial nerve? 125.12

Mitral cell

34

What is the function of the rod cell? 126.3

Provide vision in dim light conditions

35

What is the function of the cone cells? 126.4

Provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision

36

What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell? 126.5

Rod cell

37

What forms the optic nerve? 126.11

Axons of ganglion cells

38

What occurs at the optic chiasma? 126.14

Part of the optic nerve decussates

39

Axons carried in the second cranial nerve will synapse in what specific location? 126.16

Lateral geniculate nucleus

40

At its apparent origin, cranial nerve III conveys which classifications of neural pathways? 127.1

somatic efferent pathway and visceral efferent pathway

41

What is the somatic efferent nucleus of origin for the third cranial nerve? 127.2

oculomotor nuclear complex

42

What is/are the target organs for the somatic efferent fibers carried in the third cranial nerve? 127.7

medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, and inferior oblique extrinsic muscles of the eyeball and the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the eyelid

43

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus? 127.11

accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal

44

What is the location of synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve? 127.13

ciliary ganglion

45

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve are carried in which nerve? 127.14

short ciliary nerve

46

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in what targets? 128.15

sphincter pupillae & ciliaris intrinsic eye muscles

47

What are the two unique features of the fourth cranial nerve? 129.6

it is the only cranial nerve with an apparent origin from the dorsal surface of the brain;
it is the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midline from its nucleus

48

The right fourth cranial nerve will innervate which side target muscle? 129.7

the right side muscle

49

Somatic efferent fibers from the fourth cranial nerve will innervate which muscle(s)? 129.10

superior oblique extrinsic muscle of the eye

50

The fifth cranial nerve is functionally refered to as the ________. 130. 1

great sensory nerve of the face

51

What is the exit site from the cranial vault for each division of the fifth cranial nerve? 130.7

ophthalmic nerve - superior orbital fissure; maxillary nerve - foramen rotundum; mandibular nerve - foramen ovale

52

What location will each branch of the fifth cranial nerve pass into upon exit from the cranial vault? 130.8

ophthalmic nerve - orbit; maxillary nerve - pterygopalatine region; mandibular nerve - infratemporal region

53

Peripheral sensory processes of the fifth cranial nerve are primarily derived from pseudounipolar afferent neuron cell bodies located in which ganglion? 130.12

semilunar ganglion, trigeminal ganglion, Gasserian ganglion

54

Central sensory processes carried in the fifth cranial nerve synapse with secondary sensory neuron cell bodies in what location? 131.15

mainly in the principal sensory nucleus; some in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

55

What muscles are innervated by branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the fifth cranial nerve? 131.20

temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani and tensor veli palatini

56

What are the names of the muscles of mastication? 131.21

temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid

57

The fifth cranial nerve carries peripheral sensory processes from endings located in the muscles of mastication and the extraocular muscles to pseudounipolar cells located in which nucleus? 131.27

mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve

58

The sixth cranial nerve will innervate what target organ(s)? 132.7

lateral rectus extrinsic muscle of the eye

59

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the sixth cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial nerve branch? 132.9

ophthalmic division of trigeminal

60

Because of its function, the seventh cranial nerve is often called the ____. 133.2

great motor nerve of the face

61

What is the name of the afferent ganglion for the seventh cranial nerve? 133.8

geniculate ganglion, genicular ganglion

62

Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening? 133.9

the stylomastoid foramen

63

Branchial efferent fibers carried in the seventh cranial nerve will innervate what muscle? 133.11

muscle of facial expression, muscles of the scalp and auricle, the buccinator, platysma, stapedius, stylohyoid, and posterior belly of the digastric

64

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve originate from which nucleus? 133.14

superior salivatory nucleus

65

Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland? 134.16

greater petrosal or greater superficial petrosal nerve

66

Which branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic fibers into the pterygopalatine ganglion? 134.17

vidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal

67

What are the names of the ganglion of synapse in the efferent pathway to the lacrimal gland? 134.21

pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckel's ganglion

68

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the pterygopalatine, sphenopalatine or Meckel's ganglion will become incorporated in which cranial nerve branch? 134.22

maxillary nerve of the trigeminal

69

The parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland will involve branches from which cranial nerves? 134.26

facial and trigeminal nerves

70

The zygomaticotemporal nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland through a communication with which branch of the fifth cranial nerve? 134.29

ophthalmic nerve

71

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the seventh cranial nerve to the submandibular and sublingual glands will exit the pons in what nerve? 135.34

nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve

72

Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands? 135.35

chorda tympani nerve

73

The chorda tympani nerve exits the temporal bone via which opening? 135.36

the petrotympanic fissure of the temporal bone

74

The chorda tympani nerve will join which nerve? 135.38

the lingual nerve of the mandibular division of the trigeminal

75

Peripheral sensory processes from receptors around the ear and mastoid region are conveyed to the seventh cranial nerve from what other cranial nerve? 136.44

vagus

76

In general, somatic afferent pathways typically terminate on which nucleus? 136.48

the spinal trigeminal nucleus

77

What is the classification of sensory fibers associated with taste? 136.49

special visceral afferent fibers

78

Peripheral sensory processes from taste receptors in the anterior two thirds of the tongue are conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve to what ganglion? 136.53

genicular ganglion or geniculate ganglion

79

What classifications of fibers are conveyed at the apparent origin of the seventh cranial nerve? 133.5

Branchial efferent, visceral efferent, somatic afferent, special visceral afferent

80

What fluid is present within the membranous labyrinth? 137.8

Endolymph

81

What is the name given to spiral appearance of the organ for hearing? 137.9

Cochlea

82

How is sound or position converted into a neural impulse? 137.14

Endolymph is displaced and alters the membrane of a specialized receptor cell

83

In what elevations of each part of the vestibular apparatus will receptor cells be identified? 138.17

The macula of the saccule, the macula of the utricle, and the crista ampullaris of the ampullae of the semicircular ducts

84

What is unique to the receptor cells associated with equilibrium? 138.18

Stereocilia and a single kinocilium

85

What is the location of the primary afferent neuron associated with equilibrium? 138.20

Scarpa's ganglion or the vestibular ganglion

86

Central sensory processes of primary afferent neurons associated with equilibrium will terminate on secondary afferent neurons in what location? 138.23

The vestibular nuclear complex

87

Receptor cells associated with hearing are located in what structure? 138.26

The organ of Corti in the cochlear duct or scala media

88

What is the unique feature of receptor cells associated with hearing? 138.27

Stereocilia

89

What is the location of the primary afferent neuron associated with hearing? 138.29

The spiral ganglion or cochlear ganglion

90

Branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the ninth cranial nerve will innervate what target? 139.7

Stylopharyngeus muscle

91

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers are observed in what primary branch of the ninth cranial nerve? 139.10

Tympanic nerve or nerve of Jacobson

92

Within the temporal bone, preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the ninth cranial nerve will ultimately form what nerve? 139.12

The lesser (superficial) petrosal nerve

93

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers will be found in what branch(es) of the ninth cranial nerve? 140.13

The tympanic nerve and lesser (superficial) petrosal nerve

94

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the ninth cranial nerve will synapse in which ganglion? 140.16

Otic ganglion or Arnold's ganglion

95

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the otic or Arnold's ganglion will communicate with what other cranial nerve branch? 140.17

The auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal

96

Peripheral afferent processes associated with receptors in the mastoid air cells, in the tympanic cavity or in the auditory tube arise from pseudounipolar neurons located in what ganglion of the ninth cranial nerve? 140.22

The superior glossopharyngeal ganglion or jugular ganglion

97

What is/are the target organ(s) monitoring blood pressure or blood physiology which are supplied by the ninth cranial nerves? 141.25

Carotid body or carotid glomus and the carotid sinus

98

Ninth cranial nerve pseudounipolar neuron cell bodies monitoring general visceral sensation are located in which ganglion? 141.28

Inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or petrosal ganglion

99

Central sensory processes from the ninth cranial nerve pseudounipolar neuron cell bodies monitoring general visceral sensation will synapse in what location of the brain? 141.29

Cardiorespiratory nucleus of the nucleus solitarius

100

Ninth cranial nerve pseudounipolar sensory neuron cell bodies monitoring taste are located in which ganglion? 141.31

Inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or petrosal ganglion

101

Branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the tenth cranial nerve will innervate what target organ(s)? 142.8

Muscles of the soft palate; constrictor muscles of the pharynx; cricothyroid muscle and palatoglossus muscle

102

Where will preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the tenth cranial nerve synapse? 142.10

Intramural ganglia of the target organs and the cardiac plexus

103

What is the location of primary afferent neurons of the tenth cranial nerve whose peripheral processes are associated with general somatic sensation from the posterior cranial dura? 142.12

Jugular ganglion or superior vagal ganglion

104

Where will central processes of pseudounipolar afferent neurons of the tenth cranial nerve associated with somatic sensation synapse? 142.13

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

105

Peripheral processes of pseudounipolar neurons associated with general visceral sensation are carried in the tenth cranial nerve to what location? 142.14

The nodose ganglion or inferior vagal ganglion

106

Central processes of pseudounipolar neurons associated with general visceral sensation are carried in the tenth cranial nerve to synapse at what location? 142.15

The cardiorespiratory nucleus of the nucleus solitarius

107

What is/are the target organ(s) monitoring the blood pressure or blood physiology supplied by the tenth cranial nerve? 142.16

Aortic body or aortic glomus and the aortic arch

108

What is specifically monitored by each type of vascular visceral receptor associated with the tenth cranial nerve? 142.18

Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure
Chemoreceptors monitor hypoxia (decreased oxygen), hypercapnia (increased carbon dioxide) and increasing hydrogen ions (blood pH)

109

Where are pseudounipolar primary afferent neurons associated with taste sensation from the epiglottis located? 143.19

The nodose ganglion or inferior vagal ganglion