Flashcards in Sport Development Deck (25)
what are the 3 phrases to sports development?
post industrial/ advanced technology
what were the characteristics of pre- industrial?
most people worked in rural areas and worked the land
wealthy land owners had political upper class power
included working class (uneducated, had harsh life, little free time, strong sense of community)
recreation only took place occasionally (religious holidays, festivals )
what were w/c recreational activities?
bare knuckle fighting
what are the characteristics of popular reaction?
few written rules
occasional (little time)
violent (physical rather than skill)
mass participation (non-spectator based)
limited structure , equipment and facilities
played with extreme enthusiasm
what changed in the industrial revolution?
people moved from country to towns
by 1901 less than 10% working in country
living working conditions cramped
6am-6pm 6 days a week, went to church on Sunday
formation of middle class
population grew to 37 million
what did urbanisation have on w/c recreation?
little free time
no space to take part in pop recreation
the m/c assisted in the creation of rational recreation
what are the characteristics of rational recreation?
used refined skills than force
complex written rules
sophisticated equipment and facilities
regional and national based
m/c and u/c development
what are the factors that explain the influence of the sociocultural on sport?
improved working conditions
how did improve literacy develop sport?
rules could be more developed as more of society could understand them
people could read about sports teams and heroes
specialists newspapers could be produced as people are more educated and sold by the masses
how did improved working conditions improve sport?
payed holidays supplied by m/c factory owners
a Saturday was provided by factory owners
some factory owners provided sport facilities/ set up work teams
how did the church develop sport?
provided facilities and set up Sunday school teams
disapproved of excess of w/c and pop rec
rational recreation is more respectable to them
how did urbanisation develop sport?
no space to play pop rec in towns
mass spectators as people lived in built up areas
lack of space led to development of purposeful built sports facilities
how did improved transport develop sport?
outdoor and adventurous activities could be developed as a result of increased access to countryside
nationwide competitions could be set up as stream trains led to faster travel
teams could now play each other from further away, home and away fixtures
what is meant by athleticism ?
physical endeavour with moral integrity teaching moral values through sport
what is meant by professional sport?
a sporting activity this is engaged in for financial gain and as means for livelihood
what is mean by broken time payments?
payments made to compensate w/c players for loss of earnings while playing sports
what is meant by shamateurism ?
a term describing amateur performers who receive payments secretly
what is meant by amateurism?
involved sports participation for the love of it , fair play and sportsmanship were more important than winning . Abiding by the spirit as well as the rules of the game were key qualities of the gentleman amateurs
what are the advantages of professionalism?
high quality personal coaches , advisors
clearly defined rules and regs
what are the disadvantages of professionalism?
less free time
run risk of burn out
less fun, not much aspects of enjoyment
what was a gentlemen amateur for the upperclass?
free time (don't work)
highest social group
public school background
why did the upper class take part in sport?
athleticism -values gained of sportsmanship
muscular Christianity- healthy mind, healthy body to serve god
what was the middle class gentlemen amateur?
couldn't afford time off work but also didn't want to get paid for playing sport
wanted to belike the upper classes
played sport in free time and had the money
accordance to the principle of amateurism
why were the w/c excluded?
financially (no time off work) w/c seen as corruptible as they are controlled by money , paid by result
socially (u/c didn't want to mix with w/c)
not aloud in clubhouses
exclusion clauses (rowing mechanics and labourers were banned) u/c didn't like getting beaten